Britain: monarch and stability 1714-1721

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what was the significance of the Glorious Revolution of 1688?
Power was transferred to parliament from the monarch, william of orange ascended the throne and England entered the 9 year war with France
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What was the Treaty of Ryswick?
Marked the end of the war, William received recognition from Louis 15th- this was later revoked
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What was the war Policy for the Spanish war of Succession 1702?
The Whig's claimed france could be defeated only in a land campaign
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What was the reaction to this policy?
It was initially popular due to the victories of the Duke of Marlborough but disillusionment soon set in as taxation rose and harvests soured. the tory's gainedsupport for their opposition.
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How did the Tory's lose their natural majority?
The toy's would have power as long as their commitment to Protestantism wasn't doubted by the electorate. which it was after the 1708 failed Jacobite rising. they were thu decimated in the 1710 elections
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Why were the Tory's accused of being Jacobites?
many ministers close to Queen Anne were staunch in their oppostion to the Hanoverians; leading people to think they supported the Jacobites. There was little subtance to these claims, most like Harley favoured Hanoverian succession.
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What did the Treaty of Utrecht achieve?
Tories made a separate peace with France. This was to stop the burden on landowners in the form of taxes going OTT, Louis renounced support for the pretender, recognised protestant succession, dismantled fortifications and ceeded american islands,
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why was George Louis's succession problematic?
there was a discontinuity. more a pariamentry appointment that divine right, 50 people inc pretender had a better claim but he was a catholic
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What did the act of settlement 1701 stipulate
monarch and his spouse had to be Protestant, no declaration of war to protect hanover with parliaments permission, no increase in taxation without permission, civil list, annual parliaments, king appoints ministers
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what has the period 1700-1714 been characterized as?
characterized by the 'rage of parties'
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what policy features were typical of the Whig's?
monarch to rule at the will of the people, revolutionary principles, francophobia, war policy in europe, protestantism
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what policy features were typical of the Tories?
protestantism, Monarchy, Landed interests, opposing executive commitment to continental warfare
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why George i favour the Whigs on his coronation?
anger over utrecht, abuse from xenophobic tories, some tory's.still supported hereditary succession
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In addition to George I related reasons, why else were the Tory's weakened?
o'gorman: whig purge of tory ministers, contradictory election platform led to massive loss, actions of Bolingbroke
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What did Bolingbroke do following the 1715 election loss
exile self, join pretenders court, lost titles and estate as a result, told pretender to join tories and protect CofE ignored, sacked after 1715 rebellion failure
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what evidence does Hatton have to say George was very interested in politics
attended cabinet meetings, player in foreign policy, simply limited by language skills, supported stanhope, protected sunderland, involved in south sea bubble
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what was the tory position on the jacobites in 1715?
they didnt support a return to the stuart line but would not oppose one if he did come to the throne.
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how likely was the french support Bolingbroke deemed vital to the 1715 rebellion being had by the jacobites?
not very, france poor financial state, Louis xiv aware of british security measures including increased military force and northern france navy patrols. when he died in 09/1715 new king a baby controlled by cautious regent.
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Why was a jacobite rebellion likely to begin in Scotland
discontent over at of union in 1707. increased by english treason laws, extension, toleration acts, patronage act, malt and salt tax. discontent over union challenged into support for pretender as angry joined wretched jacobites hopin he'd undo union
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what happened at the firth of forth?
in 1708 an attempted french sponsered jacobite rising in scotland was thwarted after an encounter with the english navy here
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Who was the Earl of Mar?
a hypocrte who had previouslt favoured union and promoted in but as a Tory was ousted by the Whigs when they came to power. he was in a lot of debt and this sparked his association with jacobitism
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what prompted Mar to act?
a fear of arrest, accompanied by financial desperation and pride in his family’s long connection with the Stuart dynasty, which went back centuries
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why was the response from the government to scottish radicals so muted?
felt the threat from Scotland was less serious than the southern. Worrying signs in England, riots in many cities on George’s coronation. The riot act was passed that allowed troops to fire on stubborn demonstrators.
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what was the government response following knowledge of the plot
From July 1715 they were aware so they suspended habeaus corpus and arrested a handful of Mp's
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why was the english response to scottish rebellion so muted?
people were kept quiet in the south due to their continued occupation throughout the rebellion
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summarize the cause of the rebellion of 1714?
the discontent of the scottish, the continued presence of jacobitism and the fall of the tory party as an effective beacon of opposition
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who fought for the Jacobites?
18 Scottish lords responded to Mar's call for arms, 5000 men fought against just 1500 hanoverian troops still in scotland and by october 2000 more joined the jacobitess
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how did the pretenders court react to the Scottish events?
they were surprised, aware of the need for support atleast from the english. he arrived in december 1715 without french support; far too late
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was Mar n effective leader?
no he was highly indecisive this resulted in him missing several oppurtunities to join with the english rebels who were eventually occupied, he had no military experience and was strategically incompetent
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who led the Hanoverian Troops?
the Duke of argyll. very effective stopped jacobite procession into the cenrtal lowlands, forced the to retreat. jacobite army began dispersing thus even b4 pretender arrived.
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Was the pretenders religion an operating limitation?
James iii failed to gain the support of the Anglican Tories, because although not all the rebels were Catholics a lot of them were. It was much harder to exploit the discontented and the Hanoverians were able to play on the anti-Catholic prejudices
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what were the consequences of the Jacobite rebellion?
19 Scottish peers were forfeited and 7 were found guilty of treason and executed. 26 others were also executed. Many MP’s in London resigned over how harshly the rebel peers were punished.
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what was the septennial act?
extended the life of parliament from 3 to 7 years. could obtain a degree of political stability or at least for a party to consolidate their power. This was justified on the basis of the debauchery the 3 year elections brought
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What was the basis of tory objection?
That it was unconstitutional
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How did the act help maitain Whig dominance
election results ceased to reflect the swing in public opinion. Whigs domination of patronage, control of the larger boroughs and Scottish seats meant they always retained a comfortable majority
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why was there an attempt to repeal the occasional conformity and schism acts in 1719?
preserving the C of E as the national church and moral arm of the state had resulted in discrimination against dissenters. Acts repealed and annual indemnity acts protected dissenters from prosecution given the test/corporation acts still used
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what were the test acts and corporation acts?
aimed at preventing dissenters taking political office; those serving in corporations or government office must have had special CofE communion within a specific period. If they haven’t they were disqualified from office.
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what did the above lead to?
a practice called occasional conformity where by people would receive communion from the C of E once just to get the job but for the rest of the time attend their own meetings and practice their own faith outside of mainstream C of E.
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how were occasional conformists penalised?
through a 1711 act whilst the schism act attempted to prevent the separate education of dissenters in their own schools.
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What was the main cause of discontent within Whig ranks?
The degree of influence Hanover ought to have on British foreign policy. This was low hanging fruit for opposition to the government
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What was the traditional Whig foreign policy?
dutch alliance with austria against france. previously disregarded by the Tory's by signing the treaty of Utrecht.
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Why was Townshend eager to reverse this?
He had a deep engrained distrust of the french and was anxious to establish better anglo-dutch relations he did this through a series of alliances with then and austria in early 1716
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why were there alliances so crucial at this time?
The french throne was under threat from spain, britain and its allies wanted to prevent an franco-spanish alliance as their interests would be jeapordized
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How did Louis V's regent aim to protet his throne? Were these desirbale?
via an alliance with England. This alliance would also have been useful to George I as it would strengthen the Hanoverian dynasty, pacifying western Europe and allow him to focus on the northern European interests
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What made the conclusion of an alliance all the more urgent in 1716?
Stanhope discovered the existence of an impending treaty between the swedes and the Jacobites, as well as the Russians and the french.
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what did the treaty of alliance achieve in December 1716?
the pretener was evicted from avignon, fortifications at dunkirk and mardyke were dismantled and spanis/austrian relations improved
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who reacted positively to the Alliance?
george was happy as it brought security to Hanover, France as they didnt have to will to fight anymore, all those who opposed war.
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why were the younger whigs dissatisfied?
They felt the treaty sacraficed british interests for Hanovers sake. townshend instead was easger t maintain the anglo-Dutch alliance
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what was the outcome of Walpole and Townshends resistance?
they became marginalisd as Stanhope was dominant in F.P. Townshend delayed signing which led to his demotion. Sunderland intrigued against them to the king, creating a disfavour which caused a split in the Whig ranks
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Why was Hanover such a prerogative?
Due to the King's influence. O’Gorman claims the king never entirely surrendered his ultimate independence in politics especially between 1717 and 1720 when foreign policy and military matters were concerned but he was limited by act of succession
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why was sweden such a threat?
sweden and hanover relations were tense. Jacobites sought to exploit these using the Protestant King Charles XII. sedish invasion unlikely but Gyllenborg the Swedish ambassador implicated in Jacobite plot
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What were Sweden and Hanover fighting eachother for
the territories of verden and bremen as well as domination in the baltics.
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How did George attempt to obtain these Duchies?
George allied with Russia, Denmark and Prussia. In return he promised British military help to aid them when they wanted to take land from Sweden.
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why was this promise problematic?
As a clear stipulation of Hanoverian succession in the act of settlement was that the king was not allowed to involve himself in foreign wars without parliament’s permission.
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how did parliament react?
they were furious and unwilling to concede to Hanoverian interests, the gyllenborg affair justified intervention but a navy dispatch to protect baltic interests was all that was conceded along with 4 naval expeditions.
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What event resolved the great northern war?
the death of Charles the 12th. His successors just weren't up for fight in in the same way
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what were Stanhopes objectives in the Peace Settlement?
Stanhope aimed to get the swedes to acknowledge the loss of territory in the resulting peace settlement, whilst containing Russian ambitions- early accords had already broken as russia demanded Mecklenburg which would ruin BOP
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What did Stanhope achieve?
acknowledgement of Hanoverian legitimacy, the swedes to conceded Pomerania/ Stettin to Prussia, Verdin/Bremen to Hanover. in return they regained lost territory in Prussia and support in any potential conflict with Russia
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Why were friendly british-swedish relationsimportant?
for trade purposes. any conflict may facilitate russian involvement/expansion which would allow them to get a dominant poistion in the baltics where much british trade occured
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Why were negotiations in forming the triple alliance difficult and why did this change?
austria's emporer refused to recognise Philip V as the king of spain and so would not agree with the Triple alliances aims. this changed when philip invaded sardinia and sicily in 1718
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Hoe was Spain disrupting Britain and France at this time?
they sponsored Jacobite intrigues whilst also disrupting british shipping. a brit-franco naval operation had to be used to prevent a jacobite-spanish invasion in 1719
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When was peace restored in the war of the 3x alliance?
when Spain joined the alliance in 1720
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What does this success say about stanhopes foreign policy?
that it was very successful but it must not be forgoteen that George I himself helped to negotiate this alliance in 1718 as he was very much involved in diplomacy.
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Was the colder relationship with Austria following Utrecht completely due to their interests in the german states?
No, their Ostend east india company which threatened british trade interests but the emporers attempts to assert his authority on the german states certainly didn’t help
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what was the key aim of Stanhopes foreign policy?
preserving peace and national security especially from the Jacobites, as well as getting the wider acceptance of a potentially unpopular dynastic takeover which O'Gorman feels he certainly achieved
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where did the biggest oppostion to Stanhope come from
within the party dissenters gathered around Walpole/ Townshend who with the Tories in attacked the ministry over cost of transporting Dutch troops during the 1918 rebellion. supported by Prince of Wales-angry at his dad
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what was the peerage bill of 1719?
it would prevent any addition to the number of lords once George I had introduced 6 new peers and altered to allow 25 hereditary Scottish peers the prerogative of the monarch would be limited to filling the vacancies created by peerages going extinct
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why was the Peerage bill unpopular?
if george i should suddenly die, this would mean there would be a permanent Whig majority in the lords. many other mp'c inc whigs saw this would hurt their chance of getting a peerage.
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what was the fate of the peerage bill?
walpole, townshend and the prince of wales got the bill shut down. this prevented the establishment of an aristocratic class.
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why, despite their reputation as a liberal progressive party did the Whigs legislate to punitively?
Marxist historian EP Thompson; Whigs were putting on a charade. The defence of property rights and privileges were their main concern BUT Political stability depended on the ability to maintain order, especially as Hanoverian rule had split society
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whay was Walpole able to rise through the ranks?
Stanhopes death following the South Sea bubble meant he was one of few competent candidates with clean enough hands to govern
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Card 2


What was the Treaty of Ryswick?


Marked the end of the war, William received recognition from Louis 15th- this was later revoked

Card 3


What was the war Policy for the Spanish war of Succession 1702?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What was the reaction to this policy?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


How did the Tory's lose their natural majority?


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