Britain and World War One

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Three reasons why Britain was involved in the First World War.
The Triple Entente with France and Russia, The German 'Schlieffen Plan' and the Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinard.
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What exact date did Britain declare war on Germany?
August 4th, 1914
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Two negative attitudes to the war.
Some religious groups, like the Quakers, opposed on principle. They were pacifists; and objected war on every front. Another, was the nature of the war. This was the first war to have been regarded as a modern industrial war; machine guns and gases.
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Two positive attitudes in 1914.
The expectation was that it would be a quick and easy victory; "it'll be over by Christmas". Workers stopped their disputes and began to join the war effort. Suffragettes stopped campaigning and helped back at home.
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Describe what is meant by the 'anti-German feeling' in 1914.
The culture of the time turned people against Germany and her people. English Literature protrayed the Germans to be antagonists; The Riddle of the Sands. Propaganda was used to turn people against the Germans also; stories of Belgian atrocities.
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Define 'DORA', and state when it was passed.
Defence of the Realm Act; passed on the 8th of August 1914 - just four days after the outbreak of war.
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What was the inital aim of DORA?
Increasing powers of the state over its people; all about giving the people less freedoms.
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Three terms of DORA.
Complusory rationings of basic foods introduced in 1918. From May 1916, British Summer Time was introduced to improve work productivity. Censorship was brought in; the press, private correspondance and telegrams were now censored.
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What was the biggest cause of low public morale?
The Military Service Act of 1916 (conscription) - Jan 1916 - all unmarried men 18-41 had to enlist. This was extended in May to married men, due to the Battle of Somme. Further extension to all men 18-50.
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What help was available to those in need back at home?
The YMCA was expanded to help ex-soldiers. The Prince of Wales Nationall Relief Fund helped people who were homeless as a result of bombings.
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Three positive effects of World War One on living standards.
Attention began to be drawn to disabilities. Disability allowances were addressed to those whom were injured as a result of war. Munition canteens were introduced, and the Free School Meals Act was extended.
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Three negative effects of World War One on living standards.
Child care costs were cut. There were significant food shortages in 1917, as a result of the German U-Boat attacks on US merchandise ships. Death rates were high in the middle and lower classes.
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What three countries were originally involved in the Triple Entente?
Great Britain, France and Russia.
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Why did countries form alliances?
Alliances were predominately for protection and security.
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What was the German Schlieffen Plan?
Germany feared a 'war on two fronts'. So they launched surprise attacks, preliminary and pre-emptied strikes through Belgium.
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What was the political situation at the outbreak of war?
There was a Liberal Government under Asquith.
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What was the political situation at the end of the war?
There was a coalition government under Lloyd George.
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When was the coalition government created?
May 1915, under Asquith's leadership - it wasn't until December 1916 Lloyd George replaced Asquith.
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Describe the Shell's Crisis.
There was a shortage of shells, and the wrong type of shells being created. GB general named French, told the press of the crisis and the Daily Mail drew criticisms of Lord Kitchener.
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Why did the war undermine key liberal beliefs?
The increased control over civilian life, increased taxation, restricted trade, private enterprise and joining Russia, went against the key liberal principle of freedom.
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Why were British attempted offensives politically significant?
The Battle of Neuve Chapelle, for example, was costly in terms of casualties. This high rate lowered public morale back at home, the government had to do something urgently to raise this morale again.
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Why was the Gallipoli Campaign significant in the formation of the Coalition Government?
It made people back at home realise the atrocities that followed the war. It turned people against the warfront, and made the government alter the British means of fighting.
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Explain the role of Bonar Law in May 1915.
He insisted that he would press for a critical debate on the conduct of war unless a coalition was formed. Bonar Law, himself only became Colonial Secretary.
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What were the consequences of the Coalition Government?
The Turkish venture was abandoned and the emphasis was put on winning the Western Front. Disagreements caused dispute in the coalition. In 1916, Conservatives forced the adoption of conscription, much to the Liberals disapproval.
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What form of leadership did Lloyd George have?
He used an active form of leadership.
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What did Lloyd George become in 1916?
The new War Minister after the death of Kitchener.
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In December 1916, what did Lloyd George propose?
He proposed for a war council, he said he was concerned about how the government was running the war. The war should be run by a cabinet, which would consist of three people, led by himself.
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Why did Asquith rejected the war cabinet proposal?
Lloyd George said that Asquith should be confined to domestic issue.
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Why did Lloyd George resign in 1916?
LG resigned because he had the support from the public and the Conservatives.
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What was the consequence of Lloyd George's resignation?
There was more pressure on Asquith, so he resigned. King George V intervened and consulted Bonar Law, who advised the King to choose Lloyd George.
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Who was involved in Lloyd George's coalition?
It consisted of half of the Liberals, Labour and Conservatives.
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Why did the Liberals split in December 1916?
Half of the Liberals remained loyal to Asquith and became known as the Asquithians. Whereas, the other half were involved in the coalition.
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What was the war described as for the Liberals?
The war was described as the 'rampant bus' that destroyed the Liberals.
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What was the Maurice Debate of 1918?
General Maurice was unhappy and complained that Lloyd George had misguided the parliament about troop numbers at the Western Front. He believed that Lloyd George inflated the numbers to make the army look bad.
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In December 1916, what promises were made to Labour?
Labour were promised there would be post-war reconstruction - "homes fit for heroes".
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What was the significance of the 1917 Stockholm Conference?
Henderson wanted to attend, as he believed he could negotiate for peace. Lloyd George said no, so Henderson resigned. Henderson began to plan for the future and wanted Labour to leave the coalition at the end of the War.
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What was the 1917 Stockholm Conference?
The Stockholm Conference was a meeting of all socialist parties of the warring countries.
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What happened to Labour in 1918?
In 1918, Henderson sought the advice of the Webbs, and established a new constitution, opened the membership to individuals and decided to publish their aims and policies.
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What did Labour stand for?
Labour stood for minimum wage, a maximum working hours of 48 hours. Democratic control of industry - nationalisation. And a democratic administration of industries. Redistribution.
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What percentage of workers in munitions were women?
60%
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Why were women in munitions known as 'Canary Girls'?
Many got TNT poisoning and had skin discolouration, earning the women then nickname of 'Canary Girls'.
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What was the WACC?
Women's Auxiliary Army Corps - Women worked as drivers.
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What was the WREN?
Women's Royal Navy Services
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What was the WRAF?
Women's Royal Air Force - Women worked as welders.
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What was the Representation of the People's Act 1918?
It extended the franchise to all men over 21, and women over 30, who were married, graduates in their own right, or property owners.
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How many women had the vote in 1918?
8 million women had the vote in 1918.
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What was the Voluntary Aid Attachment?
Women were involved in their on the frontline, and back at home, they nursed injured soldiers. It was formed in 1909, but expanded greatly during the war.
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Card 2

Front

What exact date did Britain declare war on Germany?

Back

August 4th, 1914

Card 3

Front

Two negative attitudes to the war.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Two positive attitudes in 1914.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Describe what is meant by the 'anti-German feeling' in 1914.

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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