Breathing Mechanisms

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What two parts of the lungs change the pressure in the lungs?
1. the rib cage 2. diaphragm
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When we breathe in, is the pressure in the lungs less or more than the atmospheric pressure?
The pressure in the lungs is less than the atmospheric pressure,
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When we breathe out, what pressure is higher, the atmospheric pressure or the pressure in the lungs?
The pressure in the lungs is greater than the atmospheric pressure.
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What causes the air in the lungs to move in and out?
The difference in pressure between the lungs and the atmosphere.
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What happens to the diaphragm during inspiration (breathing in)?
The diaphragm contracts and moves down.
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What happens to the diaphragm during expiration (breathing out)?
The diaphragm relaxes and is pushed up by pressure in the abdomen.
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What happens to the rib cage and the intercostal muscles during inspiration (breathing in)?
The external intercostal muscle contract to move the ribs upwards and outwards. The internal intercostal muscles relax.
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What happens to the rib cage and the intercostal muscles during expiration (breathing out)?
The external intercostal muscles relax so that the ribs fall with gravity. The internal intercostal muscles contract during forced expiration.
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What happens to the volume of the thorax during inspiration (breathing in)?
The volume increases.
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What happens to the volume of the thorax during expiration (breathing out)?
The volume decreases.
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What happens to the pressure in the lungs during inspiraton (breathing in)?
The volume decreases (the pressure in the lungs is lower than the atmospheric pressure)
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What happens to the pressure in the lungs during expiration (breathing out)?
Increases. (The pressure in the lungs is higher than the atmospheric pressure)
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Why do doctors measure lung activity?
To find out about people's lung capacity and how easy it is for them to breathe in and out.
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Why is measuring lung activity useful?
This is useful for checking the health of people with disease of the lungs,such as chronic obstructure pulmonary disease.
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What are peak flow meters used for?
Peak flow meters are used to detect the speed with which people can exhale the air from their lungs.
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What do peak flow meters indicate?
Peak flow meters indicate to doctors how clear the airways are.
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What can a spirometer be used for?
A spirometer can be used to measure lung volumes and the rate at which oxygen is used.
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What is tidal volume?
The volume breathed into the lungs in one breath. At rest, it is usual 0.5dm cubed
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What is vital capacity?
The maximum volume of air that can be breathed out of the lungs after taking a deep breath. This is ofenabout 5dm cubed, but this is dependent on many factors such as age, gender, fitness, and state of health
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What is total lung capacity?
The amount or air present in the lungs.
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What is expiratory reserve volume?
The maximum volume of air, over and about the tidal volume, that can be exhaled with one breath.
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What is residual volume?
The colume of air remaining in the lungs after a maximum exhalation.
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What is inspiratory capacity?
The maximum volume of air, over and above the tidal volume that can be inhaled in one breath.
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What is inspiratory reserve volume?
The maxiumum volume of additional air over and above the tidal volume that can be inhaled in one breath.
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What is emphasaemia?
The decay of tissues (less alveoli surface area- less gas exchange)
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What is pneumonia?
Swollen alveoli- fluid on the lungs causing inefficient gas exhange due to flooding of the alveoli.
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How thick are the cells of alveoli?
One cell thick, meaning that diffusion is simple.
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What surrounds that alveoli?
A capillary network (also one cell thick) and elastic tissue.
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What type of blood flows through the branch of the pulmonary vein in an alveolus?
Oxygen-rich blood.
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What type of blood flows through the branch of pulmonary artery?
Oxygen-poor blood.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

When we breathe in, is the pressure in the lungs less or more than the atmospheric pressure?

Back

The pressure in the lungs is less than the atmospheric pressure,

Card 3

Front

When we breathe out, what pressure is higher, the atmospheric pressure or the pressure in the lungs?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What causes the air in the lungs to move in and out?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What happens to the diaphragm during inspiration (breathing in)?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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