1. Who claimed that laddish culture was becoming increasingly more widespread and why?
- Baker - because the education is becoming over-feminised and boys respond by playing up to their masculinity
- Francis - because females are getting careers and males respond by over-exaggerating thier masculinity
- Cohen - because of a lack of male role models both in the family and at school
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2. Francis claimed that..?
- Boys were more concerned than girls about being labelled by peers as swots because it was more of a threat to their masculinity
- Boys are more worried about being labelled as 'yobs' than girls, and so focus attention on school-work
- Boys are more likely to be labelled as swots, so naturally try to avoid this by horsing around in class
3. Sewell argued that..?
- Education has become feminised and schools do not nurture 'masculine traits' and instead celebrate qualities associated with girls
- Middle class boys are more likely to be harrassed if they appear to be 'swots'
- Education is very masculine, celebrating qualities such as competitivenss and leadership, leading to boys' doing well
4. Mitos and Browne argued that..?
- The workplace has become more feminised and there for boys' are experiencing a crisis of masculinity
- A decline in male employment oppertunities has lead to an identity crisis for men
- An increase in traditional male job oppertunities has increased boys' self esteem and motivation
5. Epstein argued that working class boys are more likely to be harrassed if they appear to be swots