1. Who claimed that laddish culture was becoming increasingly more widespread and why?
- Francis - because females are getting careers and males respond by over-exaggerating thier masculinity
- Cohen - because of a lack of male role models both in the family and at school
- Baker - because the education is becoming over-feminised and boys respond by playing up to their masculinity
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2. Francis claimed that..?
- Boys were more concerned than girls about being labelled by peers as swots because it was more of a threat to their masculinity
- Boys are more worried about being labelled as 'yobs' than girls, and so focus attention on school-work
- Boys are more likely to be labelled as swots, so naturally try to avoid this by horsing around in class
3. What has a shortage of male primary teachers led to?
- A lack of a strong postive male rolemodels both at school and at home
- A feminised education system
- Girls being favourited by other female teachers
4. Epstein argued that working class boys are more likely to be harrassed if they appear to be swots
5. A criticism of Mitos and Browne is..?
- Anti-school male subcultures still exist, affecting achievement
- There was not a decline in skilled jobs which require qualifications, thus there should be no effect on boys' motivations
- As education has also become feminised, boys' should be used to working in this environment