1. Mitos and Browne argued that..?
- The workplace has become more feminised and there for boys' are experiencing a crisis of masculinity
- A decline in male employment oppertunities has lead to an identity crisis for men
- An increase in traditional male job oppertunities has increased boys' self esteem and motivation
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2. A criticism of Mitos and Browne is..?
- Anti-school male subcultures still exist, affecting achievement
- There was not a decline in skilled jobs which require qualifications, thus there should be no effect on boys' motivations
- As education has also become feminised, boys' should be used to working in this environment
3. Francis claimed that..?
- Boys were more concerned than girls about being labelled by peers as swots because it was more of a threat to their masculinity
- Boys are more worried about being labelled as 'yobs' than girls, and so focus attention on school-work
- Boys are more likely to be labelled as swots, so naturally try to avoid this by horsing around in class
4. Who claimed that laddish culture was becoming increasingly more widespread and why?
- Baker - because the education is becoming over-feminised and boys respond by playing up to their masculinity
- Francis - because females are getting careers and males respond by over-exaggerating thier masculinity
- Cohen - because of a lack of male role models both in the family and at school
5. How have boys' leisure pursuits influenced achievement?
- Football and computer games have helped to aid boys' visual learning, increasing achievement
- Activities such as football and playing computer games have done little to develop language skills
- Reading and creative tasks are typical activities of boys, and have therefore developed language skills