Bone Anatomy

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What are the function of bones?
Framework for support of soft tissues, facilitate movement via muscle attachments, protection of soft tissue, formation of blood (haomatopoitic), storage of minerals
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Osteocysts
Maintain bone tissue. Involved in recycling Ca. Found in osteons and cannot divide.
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Osteoblasts
Secrete/forms bone matrix
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Osteogenic cells
Stem cells. Small numbers, divide mitotically to create new osteoblasts
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Osteoclasts
Liberates Ca and P by breaking down bone matrix. Reabsorbs bone.
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What percentage of bone is organic (collagen)?
30%
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Compact bone found at the outer surface has what characteristics role?
Hard and dense to provide strength
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What are Osteons?
Concentric rings of matrix surrounding the Haversian canal
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What does the Haversian canal contain?
Blood supply
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How does blood reach the Haversian canal from the periosteum?
Via horizontal canals called Volkmann canals
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What is the structure of Cancellous bone?
No rigid osteon structure, thin spines of trabeculae form a loose network
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What is the first stage of skeletal formation?
Endochondrial ossification
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What is involved in endochondrial ossification?
Calcification of a hyaline cartilage pre-skeleton. Formation of long bones
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What is the second stage of skeletal formation?
Intramembranous ossification
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What is involved in Intramembranous ossification?
Calcification of fibrous connective tissue. Formation of flat bones.
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What are the features of short bones?
Box like, limited motion, thin layer of compact bone
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Give an example of a short bone?
Cuboidal bone
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What are the features of long bones?
A diaphysis plus 2 epiphyses. Epiphyses is spongey bone, diaphysis is compact bone plus inner medulla containing bone marrow. Provide levers for locomotion.
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Give an example of a long bone?
Femur
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What are the features of flat bones?
Thin, provide protection, broad surface for muscle attachment, outer layer of compact bone with spongey bone within
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Give an example of a flat bone?
Parietal bone
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What are the features of irregular bones?
Complex, irregular shapes
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Give an example of an irregular bone?
Thoracic vertebrae
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What are the features of sesamoid bones?
Found near freely moving joints, small flat bones formed in tissue of tendons or ligaments. Alter direction of tendons over bony prominences to prevent wear
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Give an example of a sesamoid bone?
Patella
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What is the raised area of a bone surfaces called?
Eminences
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What are the sunken areas of a bone surface called?
Depression
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What is a condyle?
A rounded enlargement at the end of a bone. Covered in cartilage, involved in articulation
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What is a crest?
A ridge or line running along a bone, involved in muscle attachment
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What is a foramen?
A hole for routing blood vessels and nerves
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What is a fossa?
A depression in the bone
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What is a grove?
A narrow depression in the bone
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What is a process?
A rough projection for muscle attachment
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What is a sinus?
A chamber within a bone
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What is a spine?
A sharp, pointe eminence
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What is a trochanter?
A large rough attachment for muscle attachment
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What is a tubercle?
A small rounded projection for muscle attachment
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What is a tuberosity?
An even small projection for muscle attachment
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Osteocysts

Back

Maintain bone tissue. Involved in recycling Ca. Found in osteons and cannot divide.

Card 3

Front

Osteoblasts

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Osteogenic cells

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Osteoclasts

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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