Bonding

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  • Created by: Hindleyc
  • Created on: 12-05-18 11:36
What is an ionic bond?
Electrostatic force of attraction between oppositely charged ions formed by electron transfer
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What do metal atoms do?
Lose electrons to form positive ions
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What do non-metal atoms do?
Gain electrons to negative ions
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When is ionic bonding stronger and melting points higher?
When the ions are smaller and or have higher charges
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Sulfate, hydroxide, nitrate, carbonate and ammonium.
(SO4)^2-. (OH)^-. (NO3)^-.(CO3)^2-. (NH4)^+
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What is a covalent bond? What do multiple bonds contain?
A shared pair of electrons. Multiple pairs of electrons
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What is a Dative covalent (co-ordinate) bond? eg
Forms when the shared pair of electrons in the covalent bond come from only one of the bonding atoms. NH4+, H3O+, NH3BF3
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What the dative covalent bond act like?
Ordinary covalent bond when thinking about shape so in NH4+, is tetrahedral.
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What does the direction of arrow go from?
Atom that is providing lone pair to atom that is deficient
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What is a metallic bond?
Electrostatic force of attraction between the positive metal ion and delocalised electrons arranged in a lattice
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What 3 main factors affect the strength of the metallic bond?
1. Number of protons/ strength of nuclear attraction- more protons=stronger the bond. 2) Number of delocalised electrons per atom (outer shells electrons are delocalised-more of them=stronger the bond).3) size of ion-SMALLER the ion=stronger the bon
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Ionic crystal structure?
Giant ionic lattice eg sodium chloride and magnesium oxide
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Covalent crystal structure small?
Simple molecular (with IMF v.d.w permanent dipoles H bonds bw molecule) eg iodine, ice, carbon dioxide, water, methane
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Covalent crystal structure big?
Macromolecular- giant molecular structure eg diamond graphite silicon dioxide and silicon
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Metallic crystal structure?
Giant metallic lattice eg magnesium sodium (all metals)
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Ionic mp/bp, solubility, conductivity solid, molten- crystalline solids
High- giant lattice of ions with strong electrostatic forces between oppositely charged ions. Good solubility. Poor solid as ions can't move- fixed in lattice. Good molten as ions can move
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Simple molecular bp/mp? Solubility? Conductivity solid?molten?- mostly gases and liquids
Low as weak i.m forces between molecules (vdv/H).Poor. Poor as no ions to conduct and electrons localised (fixed in place). poor no ions
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Metallic bp/mp? Solubility? Conductivity solid? molten? how is it malleable? -shiny metal (attractive forces same in lattice whichever ions adjacent.
High as strong electrostatic forces between positive ions and sea of delocalised electrons. Insoluble. Good as delocalised electrons can move through structure. good. positive ions in lattice all identical planes of ions can slide over each other.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What do metal atoms do?

Back

Lose electrons to form positive ions

Card 3

Front

What do non-metal atoms do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

When is ionic bonding stronger and melting points higher?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Sulfate, hydroxide, nitrate, carbonate and ammonium.

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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