Boer War- Reforms and the condition of the military in 1914

What was the first committee to investigate the condition of the military after the war?
Esher Committee
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What did the Esher Committee propose to improve the quality of officers? (3)
Replacement of war office members, sacking of Roberts, replacement of commander in chief with a CIGS
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What was a CIGS?
Head of the military- Chief of Imperial General Staff
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What new organisations were proposed by the Esher Committee to administrate the military? (2)
Army Council (small), Committee of Imperial Defence (CID) to decide strategy
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What did the Esher Committee suggest should be the new role of the CIGS?
Planning and training
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What did the Esher Committee suggest should be the new role of the adjutant-general?
Recruitment and welfare
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What did the Esher Committee suggest should be the new role of the quartermaster general?
Supply and transport
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What did the Esher Committee suggest should be the new role of the master of ordnance?
Weapons, ammo, fortifications
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What was the impact of giving specific jobs to people with no overlap? (3)
Less confusion, delay, and rivalry
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What equipment did the Esher Committee recommend for the men?
Khaki uniforms, better technology, drill books
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What meritocratic policies did the Esher Committee suggest?
New staff college, allow ordinary men to rise by merit to become junior officers
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Who implemented much of the Esher Committees' advice?
Richard Haldane
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Who suggested that the militia should be dissolved and the volunteer force cut?
Arnold-Forster
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Why did Arnold-Forster suggest dissolving of the militia and cutting of the volunteers?
Reduce military spending
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What did Arnold-Forster recommend in terms of army layout?
Defence force of only 30 battalions while 112 were overseas
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Why were Arnold-Forster's suggestions rejected by parliament?
They would put a heavy strain on the navy
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When was the entente with France?
1904
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Why did some argue that army reform would be negative? (2)
Would detract from naval spending, would be too small to succeed anyway
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What was agreed in case of a war with Germany?
Britain would defend the French left flank
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What event showed that France couldn't succeed alone?
The Franco-Prussian War 1870-71
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What group was established to campaign for conscription?
The NSL (National Service League)
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When was the NSL established?
1902
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What was NSL membership in 1913?
Almost 100,000
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Why did parliament avoid conscription?
Would turn voters against parties which supported or implemented it
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When were the Haldane Reforms?
1906-1912
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What were the aims of the liberals in the Haldane Reforms?
Reduce military spending so more money could be spent on social reform
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How did Haldane reorganise the army?
Set up the BEF and a militia/volunteer force of independent units
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What service times did Haldane re-introduce?
7 years regular, 5 reserve (reduced from 21 years)
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What proportion of battalions did Haldane create at home and abroad?
50% home, 50% abroad
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What training organisation did Haldane form?
Officer Training Corps
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What did Haldane give to every soldier?
A field handbook
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What organisation did Haldane centralise control under?
The Imperial General Staff
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How many German soldiers were there for every British soldier in 1914?
80
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What youth groups joined the OTC?
Middle-class cadets
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What did the OTC create?
Young, professional officers
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What was the role of Haig in improving the condition of the army?
Large-scale training schemes and a field-book for soldiers
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What was the role of Henry Wilson in preparing the army for the Great War?
Made rail timetables and shipping arrangements for rapid mobilisation
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What didn't change in the army?
Social composition, tactics
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What was the 2-power standard?
The British navy should be at least the strength of the next two strongest navies combined
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When was the two-power standard decided upon?
1889
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When was the German Navlal Law for the expansion of the navy?
1898
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Who reformed the navy in 1902-4?
Admiral Jackie Fisher
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How did Fisher reform training?
Selbourne scheme for all officers allowed specialised training in engineering, gunnery, or navigation
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What did the training reforms theoretically make the navy?
Complete meritocracy
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How did Fisher reduce naval expenditure?
Halved the number of drydock crews, wanted submarines
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Why did the admiralty disagree with investment in submarines?
Unreliable
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Why did the admiralty want Dreadnoughts?
Dreadnoughts were fast with a high firepower and a symbol of military might
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How many submarines could be built for the cost of one Dreadnought?
25
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How many Dreadnoughts were there by the start of the Great War?
40
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Why did the liberals spend money on Dreadnoughts?
Forced by pressure from the admiralty and public opinion
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What did the Esher Committee propose to improve the quality of officers? (3)

Back

Replacement of war office members, sacking of Roberts, replacement of commander in chief with a CIGS

Card 3

Front

What was a CIGS?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What new organisations were proposed by the Esher Committee to administrate the military? (2)

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What did the Esher Committee suggest should be the new role of the CIGS?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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