BM108 Block B lecture 1

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  • Created by: amykane
  • Created on: 07-05-18 10:55
What are the two types of eukaryotic cells?
protists and metazoans
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What is a protist?
the simplest, single-celled eukaryotes, but they still carry out life functions and show division of labour among the various cell structures
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What is a metazoan?
multicellular animals that have cells specialised for particular functions
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What is bilateral symmetry?
symmetrical arrangement of an organism or part of an organism along a central axis, so that the organism or part can be divided into two equal halves. a characteristic of animals that are capable of moving freely through their environment
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Bilateral symmetry is associated with cephalisation. What is this?
the differentiation of a head
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Why was the evolution of a body cavity important?
Isolation of organs for physiological independence - kidney function different from liver. Flexibility when moving- organs don’t rip apart.Prevents organs from sticking to each other - cells like to intermingle
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When is the gut formed?
during gastrulation
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what are Pseudocoel/coelom?
fluid filled body cavities that cushion organs and provide support
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The body plan and its cavities are made of 3 ‘germ layers’. what are they?
Endoderm Mesoderm Ectoderm
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What are acoelomates?
organisms with no body cavity (e.g. jellyfish)
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what are Pseudocoelomates?
organisms which have a body cavity between mesoderm and endoderm (e.g. round worm)
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What is the body cavity in Pseudocoelomates called?
Pseudocoel
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What are Coelomates?
have a body cavity entirely within the mesoderm (e.g. arthropods)
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What is the body cavity in coelomates called?
coelum
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What are the major tissue types?
Eipthelial tissue (ectoderm/endoderm), mesenchymal (medoderm), muscle (mesoderm), nervous tissue (ectoderm)
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What is mesenchymal?
connective tissue ans blood
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What are the different types of epithelial tissue?
squamous, cuboidal and columnar
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What are the different types of muscle cells?
smooth, skeletal and cardiac
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A neuron (nerve cell) receive signals at the....
dendrites and send them out via the axons.
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What does the axon do?
transmits electrical impulses from cell body to synaptic terminals
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What do the synaptic terminals do?
release neurotransmitter chemicals into synapse when action potential arrives
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How do our bodies form in the way they do?
Through the processes of embryonic development
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What are the steps of early development?
Fertilisation -> first cleavage -> 2-cell stage -> 4-cell stage -> 8-cell stage -> morula -> 128 cell blastocyst -> implantation and placenta formation (day 7)
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Where does the early development stages take place?
starts in ovaries, then the oviduct then into the uterus
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What is the inner cell mass of blastocyst called and what does it go on to form?
Called the embryoblast - goes on to form embryo proper
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What is the outer cell mass of blastocyst called and what does it go on to form?
called the trophoblast - goes on to form placenta
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What does pluripotent mean?
can differentiate into different cell types
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After impregnation of blastocyst the ICM forms two layers, what are they?
Epiblast – dorsal, next to amniotic cavity. Hypoblast – ventral, facing the yolk sac.
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When are the 3 germ layers formed?
gastrulation
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What is epiblast made from?
ectoderm
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What is the hypoblast made from?
endoderm
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What condition is caused by incomplete neural tube closure?
spina bifida
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What is the best way to prevent spina bifida
take folic acid supplements before and during pregnancy
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Once embryo undercutting is complete somites are subdivided into what?
sclerotome, myotome and dermatome which form the vertebrate, skeletal muscles and dermic
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Card 2

Front

What is a protist?

Back

the simplest, single-celled eukaryotes, but they still carry out life functions and show division of labour among the various cell structures

Card 3

Front

What is a metazoan?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is bilateral symmetry?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Bilateral symmetry is associated with cephalisation. What is this?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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