Blood Loss

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  • Created by: laura_s
  • Created on: 12-01-16 18:00
Why was blood loss so dangerous?
It meant that patient's blood pressure would drop, meaning their body would not be able to function properly and they would die.
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Why does bleeding make it difficult for surgeons?
It makes it hard for them to see what they are doing.
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What was the common way to deal with wounds?
Blood vessels would be sealed by placing a hot iron onto the wound or by pouring hot oil over it.
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What was this process known as?
Cautery.
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Who developed the metal clips?
Ambroise pare.
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What were these metal clips used for in surgery?
They were placed on arteries.
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What replaced cautery iron or boiling oil later on?
Ligatures. They were silk threads used to tie up blood vessels.
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Name a positive of using ligatures.
This method was far less painful.
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Name a negative of using ligatures.
They failed to stop the bleeding if they were not tied up properly. They were also not sterilised, which meant they could carry infection.
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Who developed Pare's ideas and when?
Joseph Lister, within the 19th Century.
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In the 1800's, blood transfusions were banned. Who brought them back and when?
James Blundell, and in the 19th Century.
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What was the main cause of death in childbirth?
Blood Loss.
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What conclusion did James Blundell come to?
He found that a transfusion of human blood would often stop the mother from dying.
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List the 3 remaining issues of Blundell's idea.
Blood clotting, the availability and immune response.
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Explain why Clotting was a serious issue.
Blood begins to clot as soon as it leaves the body, which means that the blood flowing trough the transfusion tube would often clot there and prevent the transfusion from taking place.
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Explain why availability was a serious issue.
Blood clotting meant that blood couldn't be stored, meaning that transfusions could only take place when the donor was attached to the recipient.
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Explain how the immune response was a serious issue.
Antibodies would attack the blood as they didn't recognise the cells, causing the blood to clump together.
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What were the four blood groups that were discovered?
A, B, O, AB.
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When were the four blood groups discovered and by who?
In 1902, by Karl Landsteiner.
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With the introduction of blood groups, what did surgeons ensure was matching?
The blood group of the recipient and donor had to be matching in order for the transfusion to stand a chance of success.
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Even with the development of blood groups, explain why there were still major issues with blood transfusions.
The donor still needed to be present, however this was not practicle. This meant that even with the blood groups, the development of blood transfusions didn't have an immediate effect in surgery.
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What chemical substance stopped blood from clotting?
Sodium Citrate.
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Who discovered that Sodium Citrate would stop blood from clotting, and when?
Richard Lewisohn, in 1915.
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Give a benefit of using sodium Citrate.
Donor's did not have to be present, so more transfusions could be carried out.
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Who discovered that blood could be refrigerated?
Richard Weil.
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What was added to blood, which enabled it to be stored for longer?
Citrate glucose solution.
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Who discovered this and when?
Francis Rous and James Turner, in 1916.
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How was the storage of blood helpful in war?
When an attack was planned, the army asked for donations from the general public which they used to help meet the needs of the soldiers at war.
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Who invented a portable machine that could store blood?
Geoffrey Keynes.
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Give an advantage of this machine.
Emergency transfusions could take place closer to the battlefields, which increased the chances of survival.
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When was the first blood depot established?
1917.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Why does bleeding make it difficult for surgeons?

Back

It makes it hard for them to see what they are doing.

Card 3

Front

What was the common way to deal with wounds?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What was this process known as?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Who developed the metal clips?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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