Blair

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What did Labour's 1997 manifesto mainly focus on?
Improving public services.
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When were all five public service improvement pledges met from the 1997 manifesto?
2001
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What can be said about Labour's 1997 election?
The policies were not overly ambitious and in many other ways they developed the Conservative policies of the previous government. For example, Blair pledged education was vital and he largely followed Major's policy.
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Which education policies were the same as Major's?
The use of league tables and inspections.
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Which education policies were different to Major's?
Targets were extended and more specialist schools were introduced.
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As shadow home secretary, what did Blair promise?
To be 'tough on crime'. This was to show that it was not only the Tories who could restore law and order. There were measures to reduce social exclusion but this was paired to longer prison sentences.
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What did Labour's 2001 manifesto pledge?
More investment in health and education to improve quality, when combined with reforms. There would be more teachers and doctors, but also more accountability on parents and patients to ensure improving exam results and shorter waiting times.
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What was set up in July 2001?
A special delivery unit to ensure that reforms were implemented and targets were increasingly used to try and enforce change.
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What was Blair's views on his social reforms?
That he remained disappointed by the slow progress and larger argued that he should have been prepared to be more radical earlier.
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What crisis did Blair face in 2000?
Rising fuel prices led to a blockade by farmers and lorry and drivers.
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What were the affects of foot and mouth disease?
It hit sheep and cattle, leading to a cull of 10 million animals.
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What did people in the countryside feel towards Labour?
They were an urban party. Such as when Labour tried to ban hunting with dogs. There was a long battle with the House of Lords and the Countryside Alliance organised a march in 2002 with 500,000 people.
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When was the ban of hunting with dogs implemented?
2004
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When was the National Minimum Wage Act?
1998
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What was the minimum wage that was introduced?
£4.85 per hour for adult workers - in conjunction with Labour's 1997 manifesto. Provision was made for that figure to subsequently increase with the cost of living.
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How many workers had their wages immediately raised in 1999 with the minimum wage?
1.5 million.
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What was the Conservatives view on the minimum wage?
They initially opposed the measure due to a potential threat to jobs, but accepted it when in government.
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What took place in 1997?
Winter Fuel Allowance.
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What was Winter Fuel Allowance?
It was with a generosity approach for senior citizens. It initially granted £100 per person.
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What was the criticism of the Winter Fuel Allowance?
It was wasteful as public money as a universal payment.
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When was Jobseekers Allowance introduced?
1998
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Between 2003 and 2008, how many claimed Jobseekers Allowance?
2.5 million people.
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What was Jobseekers Allowance an adjustment of?
Major's 1996 unemployment benefit and income support, rolling them into one.
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How could people get Jobseekers Allowance?
They had to show they were actively looking for work. Labour were meant to streamline this by removing the means test and allowing greater time and flexibility as although job hunting should be encouraged, it should be treated with respect.
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What can Labour's domestic reforms be known as?
Labour's 'New Deal'.
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When was the Police Reform Act?
2002
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What was the Police Reform Act?
This created MCSOs who were not legally police officers and so had limited powers. The main aim was to have a police presence in the community, lessening the 'them and us' attitudes in the public.
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When was the Freedom of Information Act?
2000
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What was the Freedom of Information Act
This gave people the right to request information from public bodies. By 2006, over 100,000 requests were being made each year.
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What did Tony Blair later describe as a mistake?
The passing of the Freedom of Information Act. This was because he said he was naive when he first became PM and though it would detract politicians from carrying out actions they would not want the public to know.
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How was the issue of poverty addressed?
Through the Social Inclusion Unit, set up in 1997.
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What was the Social Inclusion Unit?
It's work did not succeed in integration, but its work was useful in showing that poverty was not just an economic problem and also a lack of aspiration problem, especially in inner city areas. Economists were disappointed it didn't show dependency.
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When was the Working Families and Child Tax Credits introduced?
1998
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What were the aims of the Working Families and Child Tax Credits?
To reduce child poverty under working families tax credit. Families with dependent children whose income from employment was below a certain level were entitled to a tax allowance, effectively raising wages.
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Why did the government insist that the Working Families and Child Tax Credits was not a benefit?
Because it was not part of the actual wage received.
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What was child tax credit meant to do?
Help single parents, which it did to a certain degree. It was;t able to exclude the parent from receiving benefits, such as housing benefit.
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When was the Human Rights Act?
1998
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What was the Human Rights Act?
The European Convention on Human Rights was incorporated into British law through this.
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Who helped draft the Human Rights Act?
Jack Straw.
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Why did the Human Rights Act arouse controversy?
For letting Europe rule Britain too much.
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When was the Employment Act?
2004
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What was the Employment Act?
This was concerned with confirming trade union rights while at the same time improving industrial relations by requiring unions to hold a ballot before taking strikes.
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When was the Gender Recognition Act?
2004
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What was the Gender Recognition Act?
This gave transexuals the right to change their gender legally and to marry someone of their newly assigned gender. It was a practical measure towards New Labour's social inclusion.
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When was the repeal of Section 28?
2003
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What was the repeal of Section 28?
The repeal of Section 28 of the Local Government Act of 1988, which had declared that a local authority shall not intentionally promote homosexuality.
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Who was the repeal of Section 28 delayed by?
The House of Lords.
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What was the repeal of Section 28 achieved under?
The Local Government Act of 2003.
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What was seen a further stage towards a tolerant society?
The repeal of Section 28.
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When was the Civil Partnership Act?
2004
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What was the Civil Partnership Act?
Same sex marriages now had the same legal rights and protection as male-female marriages.
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What was the Civil Partnership Act helped by?
The repeal of Section 28.
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Who supported the Civil Partnership Act?
Labour, the Conservatives and the Lib Dems.
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What did the left criticise about Labour's domestic reforms?
Thought well intentioned, they only increased the gap between the rich and the poor. They said he had a adopted a Thatcherite approach to society and had only tinkered with it. Labour had abandoned genuine socialism under transformation.
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Card 2

Front

When were all five public service improvement pledges met from the 1997 manifesto?

Back

2001

Card 3

Front

What can be said about Labour's 1997 election?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Which education policies were the same as Major's?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Which education policies were different to Major's?

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Preview of the front of card 5
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