Black Panthers

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When did SNCC help set up a blacks only political party in Lowndes County, a poor area of Alabama?
1966
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What was the symbol for the blacks only group set up by SNC in 1966?
Black Panther
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When did Huey Newton and Bobby Seale set up the Black Panther Party for Self-Defence?
October 1966
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Where did Newton and Seale set up the Black Panther Party for Self-defence?
Ghettos of the Californian city of Oakland, near LA
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What was the intention of the Black Panther Party for Self-defence?
Combat police brutality
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What was Newton's explanation for the choice of the Black Panther?
As it does not attack its enemies but if attacked itself has the power to overcome its foes and defend itself
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What was the intention of the Black Panther Party for Self-defence?
Combat police brutality and conditions in the ghetto
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What inspired the Black Panther Party for Self-Defence?
Teachings of Malcolm X and Communist revolutionaries from around the world
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What are some of the Communist revolutionaries who inspired the Black Panther Party for Self-Defence?
Che Guevera and Fidel Castro as well as Mao Zedong
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Who were Che Guevera and Fidel Castro?
Revolutionaries who had took control of Cuba at the end of the 1950s
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Who was Mao Zedong?
Communist who had been in control of China since 1949
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What was significant about the other radical groups that the Black Panther Party for Self-Defence forged links with?
Radical groups included those of Mexican and Hispanic origin
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What did each of the Black Panther Party's points on its 10 point plan of action start with?
The words "we demand..."
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What did the demands of the Black Panthers include?
Compensation for black people for slavery, exemption from military service, improved conditions/housing in ghettos and vote for black people on whether to have 'black homeland'
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Whose ideas were the Panthers' very similar to?
Those of Marcus Garvey and Elijah Muhammad
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Why was the impact of the Black Panthers very limited?
As they never had more than 5000 members
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Why were the Panthers the unacceptable face of Civil Rights protest to many white people?
Very visual and violent
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What was significant about one of the Black Panthers leaders, Eldridge Cleaver?
Convicted ******
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By 1970 what had happened to most of the Black Panther leaders?
Dead or in prison
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What were the Black Panthers involved in with police in the ghettos?
Shooutouts
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In what aspect did the black panthers have the biggest impact?
Daily lives of many ghetto dwellers
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What was the legacy of the Black Panthers, who can be seen as a 'branch' of the Black Power movement?
Raising of self-awareness, self-pride and self-sufficiency among the populations of Northern and Western ghettos
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When was the Wretched of the Earth published?
1961
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When was the Ten-Point Programme published
1966
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Black Panther Party launches 'Patrol the Pigs' campaign
1966
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Huey Newton arrested for murder
1967
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BPP launches Free Huey Campaign
1967
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BPP launches survival programmes
1968
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Eldridge Cleaver stands as Presidential Candidate for Peace and Freedom Party
1968
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'Chicago Seven' arrested
1968
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Eldridge Cleaver's 'Soul on Ice' published
1968
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Black Panther Party disbanded
1977
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Which state was BPP established in?
California
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What was the name of the blacks-only political party that SNCC had helped establish?
Lowndes County Freedom Organisation
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How old was Huey Newton when BPP established
24
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How old was Bobby Seale when BPP established?
30
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What was one of the most radical groups set up in the 1960s?
BPP
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What did Huey Newton say about teh Panther as a symbol?
"if anyone attacks him or backs him into a corner the panther comes up to wipe the aggressor.. out"
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Who did Seale and Newton look to as a role model?
Malcolm X
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Why did Seale and Newton both admire Malcolm X?
For his ability to communicate with working class who lived in northern ghettos
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When had Seale and Newton first became involved in campaigns for black civil rights?
Since early 1960s
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What was a pubic statement by Huey Newton showing the importance of Malcolm X to the BPP?
"the Black Panther Party exists in the spirit of Malcolm"
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Like Malcolm X, Newton and Seale were critical of civil rights leadership who chose to work with white people - why?
For being too cautious and failing to understand the needs of black working class
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Which aspects of black liberation which had been highlighted by Malcolm X did the Black Panther Party focus on?
Self defence and economic improvement
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Why did black people need an organised defence?
Argued could not trust police or justice system
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A AAccording to Newton, the police occupy the black ghettos in the same way as what?
US army occupied areas of Vietnam
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What was the uniform of the Black Panther militia that patrolled black neighbourhoods?
Paramilitary uniform of black beret, blue shirt and black leather jacket
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The Party slogan sums up rejection of police - what is the slogan?
"Off the pigs!"
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What was Black Panther Party's second goal, aside from self-defence?
Improve conditions in northern ghettos
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What was the wording of demand for UN supervised referendum which linked to self-determination (an ideology of NOI)?
"for the purpose of determining the will of black people"
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How old was Bobby Seale when BPP established?
30
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Which of the demands in the ten-point programme reflected the widely held belief that it was impossible for black people to egt a fair trial?
Immediate release of all black prisoners unless/until tried by jury of pees
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What did the 'Black Panther' newspaper contain to show the racist nature of US justice system?
Numerous stories of police violence and miscarriages of justice
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Like Malcolm X, Newton and Seale were black nationalists. What did Newton and Seale focus on?
Anti-colonialism
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Inspired by The Wretched of the Earth, what did Newton and Seale link the black struggle for freedom in America to?
The fight against colonial domination in Third World
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Why was Mao Zedong an inspiration to Newton and Seale?
He had successfully expelled foreign white oppressors from China
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Who did Newton and Seale stress solidarity with?
Oppressed people from around the world
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Why did Newton and Seale oppose Vietnam War?
Solidarity with oppressed around the world
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What did Newton and Seale call for black people to do regarding Vietnam?
Refuse to fight
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Where did Newton and Seale's emphasis on revolution come from?
Study of Marxism
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What did Marx argue?
No real freedom under capitalism, freedom could only be gained through a revolution led by working class
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The Black Panthers had a shadow government. What were the roles of Newton and Seale
Newton was Minister of Defence and Seale was Central Committee chairman
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When did BPP ally with SNCC?
February 1968
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During alliance with SNCC what role did Stokely Carmichael assume in Black Panther's 'shadow government'
Prime Minister, although he and others from organisation quickly resigned
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Why did SNCC split with Black Panthers in July 1969?
Personality clashes and ideological tension
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What did SNCC advocate?
Separatism and nationalism
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What did the Black Panthers advocate?
Multiracial working class struggle against repression
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One of Panthers' first initiatives was the 'patrol the pig' campaign. Where did this begin?
Oakland, California
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What was the intention of the patrol the pigs campaign?
Designed to keep police under surveillance and protect blacks from abuses of police power
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What was done in the 'patrol the pigs' campaign every time a patrol stopped or arrested an African American?
Would observe the incident
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What was Newton's role during 'patrol the pigs'?
Heavily involved, carried law books in car and intervened. Would question police and draw crowd of onlookers
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What did 'patrol the pigs' achieve?
Showed police abuses and educated local black residents regarding legal rights, gained great support among black population of Oakland
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What was the result of the 'patrol the pigs' campaign for the Black Panthers?
Party grew and was able to extend campaign to the cities Richmond and Berkeley, also in California
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What did the California state government do about 'patrol the pigs' as they felt threatened?
attempted to ban them
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How did the Panthers respond to the state government's hope of banning patrols?
Media attention, seeking to win further support for cause - hugely successful
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By end of 1967 the Black Panthers were a national organisation. How many different local groups were there, across how many states?
35 different local groups in 15 states
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What gained the Black Panthers more publicity?
Free Huey campaign following Newton's arrest for murder in 1967
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What happened regarding the murder charges given to Newton?
Released in 1970 and case dropped
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What happened to the youngest member of the Black Panthers?
He died at 17 just a few weeks before his eighteenth birthday
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What was the name of the youngest member of the BlackPanthers?
Bobby Hutton (Lil' Bobby)
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When did Lil' Bobby die?
In battle of 28th street - fire fight with Oakland poliec
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What started the 'battle of 28th street'?
When 8 Panthers ambushed police in response to assassination of Martin Luther King.
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What happened in the battle of 28th street?
Hutton and another Panther fled, escaped arrest but 50 man assault squad to capture them. Police fired on building they were hiding in, forced a surrender
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What was wrong about the way that Bobby Hutton was killed?
He was unarmed, walked out with hands up and was shot 12 times - killed instantly
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What did Newton's arrest lead to?
New leadership and change of direction
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From 1968 what did the Black Panther Party emphasise rather than police confrontations?
Welfare programmes
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What was the aim of survival programmes?
Improve lives of African Americans in northern city ghettso
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What were programmes planned in 1968?
Free Breakfast for School Children Programme, free health clinics and free 'liberation schools'
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Who funded the survival programmes?
Local black business people and celebrities such as Jimi Hendrix
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The hugely successful Free Breakfast began at St Augustine's Church, Oakland. Once expanded, how many children were fed each day?
10,000
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What did the health clinics offer tests for, alongside emergency medical care and contraception davice?
Conditions primarily affecting black people
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What followed the highly popular free clinics?
Women's groups adn groups supporting Hispanic Americans
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By 1974 how many free clinics across the USA were there?
200
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How many people, by 1974, did the free clinics treat each year?
Over 200,000
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What was the first liberation school?
Oakland Community School
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What were liberation schools like?
Staffed by volunteers and located in church halls, back of shops or even in homes
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What was the initial aim of the liberation schools?
To empower adult black Americans by teaching them about struggles, actions and achievements in past.
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What was the focus on culture and history of blacks, wholly different from mainstream education, intended to do?
Inspire self-confidence nad greater sense of identity
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As the number of schools increased, who else was admitteD?
Youths and children
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How did liberation schools help youths and children?
Provided academic support to students in conventional education too
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How did Eldridge Cleaver, a prominent member of the party, rise to fame?
After publication of his book 'Soul and Ice' and leading member after Newton's arrest?
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As candidate of Peace and Freedom Party for presidential election (1968) what percentage did Cleaver poll of popular vote?
0.15%
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Although only 5000 official members, what was the circulation of BPP newspaper?
250,000
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By 1968 what was the estimated readership of BP newspaper?
million
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By end of 1960s what was the approval rating of Cleaver, Newton and Seale among black GIs serving in Vietnam?
70%
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What can be said about the Black Panther Party?
Was genuinely popular among America's young black working class
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By 1968 where did BPP have branches?
Number of cities
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How did BPP win great deal of respect in ghettos?
Through emphasis on self help rather than civil rights and legal equality
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What did the ghetto clinics advise on?
Health, welfare and legal rights
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How did BPP's ghetto clinics have a wider impact?
Led to others setting up free clinisc
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In 1970 the Southern California chapter of the Free Breakfast programme served how many meals weekly to poor in ghetto?
1700+
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What was the symbol for the blacks only group set up by SNC in 1966?

Back

Black Panther

Card 3

Front

When did Huey Newton and Bobby Seale set up the Black Panther Party for Self-Defence?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Where did Newton and Seale set up the Black Panther Party for Self-defence?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What was the intention of the Black Panther Party for Self-defence?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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