Biotechnology basics

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What is biotechnology based on?
Based on biology and involves exploitation of living organisms or biological processes, to improve agriculture, food science, medicine and industry.
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What do ancient biotechnology methods include?
Yoghurt-making, cheese-making, baking and brewing.
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What are the 4 main areas that biotechnology has application in?
Healthcare+medical (drugs+gene therapy), agriculture(genetically modified), industry(enzymes), food science(better nutrition/taste).
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What are examples of the production of foods?
Cheese and yoghurt-making, mycoprotein, brewed soya sauce.
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What are the organisms involved in the production of foods?
Bacterial growth in milk changes flavour and texture of milk to generate a different food.Fusarium fungus grown to produce mycoprotein.Roasted soya beans are fermented with yeast or fungi.
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What are examples of production of drugs and pharmaceutical chemicals?
Penicillin, insulin.
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What are the organisms involved in producing penicillin and insulin?
Penicillin grown in culture produces the antibiotic as a by-product. Bacteria (E.coli) are genetically modified to carry the insulin gene.
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What are examples of the production of enzymes or other chemicals for commercial use?
Pectinase (fruit juice extraction), calcium citrate (detergents), bio-gas fuel production.
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What are the organisms involved in the production enzymes and chemicals?
Fungus grown produces pectinase. The fungus niger produces citric acid as a by-product. Methanogenic bacteria generate gases that can be used as fuel.
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What are examples of the bioremediation of waste products?
Waste water treatment.
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What organisms are involved in waste water treatment?
Variety of bacteria and fungi use organic waste in the water as nutrients and make the water harmless.
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Why is the use of bacteria and fungi widespread?
Microorganisms grow rapidly in favourable conditions, produce protein/chemicals that can be harvested, can be genetically engineered, grow well in relatively low temps, can be grown anywhere, generate more pure products, grown using nutrient material
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What do ancient biotechnology methods include?

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Yoghurt-making, cheese-making, baking and brewing.

Card 3

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What are the 4 main areas that biotechnology has application in?

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Card 4

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What are examples of the production of foods?

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Card 5

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What are the organisms involved in the production of foods?

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