Biotechnology

  • Created by: Esme.B
  • Created on: 11-04-18 18:15
Biotechnology?
Industrial use of living organisms to produce food, drugs + other products.
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List x4 reasons why most of the living organisms used are mostly microorganisms?
1) Ideal growth conditions can be easily created. 2) Short-life cycle-grow rapidly, products made quickly. 3) Grown on range of inexpensive material-economical. 4) Grown any time of the year.
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What right conditions must be present for microorganisms to grow successfully?
correct.. 1). nutrients 2). Temperature 3). PH 4). Moisture levels 5). Availability of gases (some need oxygen)
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What other living organisms do Biotechnology also use parts of to make products?
Enzymes
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Intracellular enzymes?
Enzymes used in industry contained within cells.
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Extracellular enzymes?
Enzymes used that aren't contained within cells- isolated enzymes. (secreted naturally or extracted)
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Why are 'Naturally secreted enzymes' cheaper to use?
It can be expensive to extract enzymes from cells
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'Single- cell protein'?
Microorganisms grown as a source of protein + act as a valuable food source for humans and animals.
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List x2 examples of microorganisms used to make 'single-cell protein'?
1). Fungus- used to make meat substitution Quorn 2). Bacteria
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List x3 advantages of using microorganisms to produce food for human production.
1) Healthier alternative to animal protein. 2) quicker, easier, cheaper- production costs are low (less land) 3) Can be produced in most places.
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List x3 disadvantages of using microorganisms to produce food for human production.
1). Not the same as real meat 2). Consume high quantities of single-celled protein can cause health problems (high levels of uric acid released when a.a are broken down). 3). Not nice idea of eating food that has been grown using waste products
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What's a 'culture'?
A population of one type of microorganism that's been grown under controlled environment.
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Fermentation vessels?
Cultures grown in large containers. (obtain lots of microorganisms or collect lots of useful product)
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X2 main methods of culturing microorganisms?
1). Batch fermentation 2). Continuous fermentation
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Batch fermentation?
Microorganisms are grown in individual batches in a fermentation vessel .
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Continuous fermentation?
Microorganisms are continually grown in a fermentation vessel without stopping (nutrients put in and waste products taken out at a constant rate)
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1). Why is the conditions inside the fermentation vessels kept at optimum for growth? + 2). List the x5 conditions that are controlled
1). Maximise the yield for microorganisms + desirable products. 2). conditions: PH, Temperature, access to nutrients, volume of oxygen, vessel kept sterile)
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PH?
constantly monitored by a PH probe and kept at optimum level (allow enzyme to work efficiently - rate of reaction is kept as high as possible)
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Temperature?
Kept constant by a water jacket that surround the entire vessel (allow enzyme to work efficiently - rate of reaction is kept as high as possible)
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Access to nutrients?
Paddles constantly circulate fresh nutrient medium around the vessel. (ensures that the microorganism always have access to required nutrients)
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Volume of oxygen?
Sterile air is pumped into the vessel when needed (ensures that the microorganisms always have oxygen for respiration)
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Vessel kept sterile?
Superheated steam sterilises the vessel after each use (kills any unwanted organisms that may compete with the ones being cultured.
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Closed culture?
Growth takes place in a vessel that's isolated from the external environment (extra nutrients not added and waste products not removed during growth)
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Standard growth curve?
The curve a closed culture population of microorganisms follow (i.e- batch fermentation)
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x4 main stages of the standard growth curve?
1). Lag phase 2). Exponential phase 3). Stationary phase 4). Decline phase
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Lag phase ?
Population size slowly increases because microorganisms have to make enzymes + other molecules before they can reproduce. ( Reproduction rate is low)
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Exponential phase?
Population size increases quickly because the culture conditions are most favourable for reproduction. (lots of food + little competition) - number doubles
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Stationary phase?
Population size stays level due to the death rate of microorganisms equal the reproduction rate. (microorganisms die because there's not enough food + poisonous waste products build up)
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Decline phase?
Population size falls because of death rate is greater than the reproductive rate. -food very scarce and waste products are at toxic levels.
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What are the x3 main stages to growing microorganisms?
1). Sterilisation 2). Inoculation 3). Incubation
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Sterilisation?
1). All equipment must be sterilised before using them 2). Special oven: autoclave is used to sterilise all equipment 3) Gamma radiation can also be used to kill the bacteria 4) UV light stops microbes from growing.
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Inoculation?
1. The introduction of microorganisms to the sterile media.• Streak- Using a wire loop (used to separate single colonies) • Seed- Pipette used to transfer a small drop to create a lawn culture. •Spread- A glass spreader is used to spread the culture
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Incubation?
1).Petri dishes placed in incubator upside down-any condensation formed doesn’t damage colonies 2).Don’t completely seal petri dish 3. )Don’t open the plates 4)Don’t incubate at temperatures close to 37 degrees-ensure it’s not harmful bacteria to hum
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What other factors can be investigated in the experiment 'Growth of microorganisms'?
1) effect of PH-adding buffers at different PH levels to the broth 2). Nutrient availability- using different preparations of agar which contain different nutrients.
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Spectrophotometer?
Machine that measures the turbidity (cloudiness) of the broth. Higher turbidity means that more cells are present and, therefore more replication has taken place.
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Card 2

Front

List x4 reasons why most of the living organisms used are mostly microorganisms?

Back

1) Ideal growth conditions can be easily created. 2) Short-life cycle-grow rapidly, products made quickly. 3) Grown on range of inexpensive material-economical. 4) Grown any time of the year.

Card 3

Front

What right conditions must be present for microorganisms to grow successfully?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What other living organisms do Biotechnology also use parts of to make products?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Intracellular enzymes?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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