biopsychology

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what are neurons?
nervous cells.
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what do they do?
they send and receive electrical information or nerve impulses either from other neurones or cells e.g. muscle cells, heart cells
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what does a sensory neurone do?
carries information from senses/pns to muscles and organs/cns.
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what do motor neurones do?
transmit messages from cns to muscles and organs.
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what do interconnecting neurones do?
they transfer messages between sensory and motor neurones.
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what is a synapse?
the gap between one neurone and the dendrites of an adjacent neurone.
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what does the cns consist of?
the brain and spinal chord.
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what does the pns consist of?
millions of neurones that carry messages to and from the cns.
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what are the 2 control systems humans have?
the nervous system and the endocrine system.
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what does the central core do?
it controls most primitive behaviours e.g. sleep and involuntary e.g. sneezing. located in midbrain, regulates endocrine to maintain homeostasis.
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what does the limbic system do?
it is closely connected to the hypothalamus, contains the hippocampus which plays a key role in memory.
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what does the cerebrum do?
each of our sensory systems sends messages to and from the cerebral cortex,composed of left and right hemispheres connected by fibres. each hemisphere has 4 lobes.
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what are the 4 lobes in the cerebrum?
frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital.
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where is the motor area located?
the parietal lobe.
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what is the motor area responsible for?
controlling voluntary movement. movements on the right are controlled by left hemisphere, movements on left controlled by right.
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what could damage to the motor cortex do?
cause impaired movement.
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where is the samatosensory area located?
the parietal lobe but is separate to the motor area.
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what is it responsible for?
heat, cold, touch, pain and senses of body movement.
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where is the visual area located?
at the back of the occipital lobe.
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what is it responsible for?
vision, nerve fibres from the inner half of the retina of each eye cross at the optic chasm and travel to opposite sides of the brain.
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where is the auditory area located?
temporal lobe.
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what is it responsible for?
the analysis of speech based information.
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what area is located in the auditory area?
wernicke's area.
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what does neurosurgery involve?
the destruction of an area of the brain. surgical procedures known as lobotomy was used to treat mental disorders.
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what do post mortems involve?
a surgical dissection of the brain of a person who has died.
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what do EEGs do?
record electrical activity using electrodes that are placed on the head. brain wave patterns coming from neurone activity can be seen on the screen. used to study things like epilepsy.
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what does electric stimulation involve?
inserting an electrode into a single neurone which is then stimulated with electricity.
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what does a PET scan involve?
injection of radioactive chemical into the bloodstream, the head is then scanned to see the amount of radioactivity coming from diff. parts of brain.
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what are MRI and CAT scans?
other types of scan used to study brain structure and function.
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what is genotype?
the actual set of genes an individual has and is made up of.
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what is phenotype?
behavioural characteristics and physical attributes.
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what is the difference between genotype and phenotype?
a phenotype is determined mostly by a genotype and phenotypes are dependant on their inherited genes.
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what is the 'equation' used to show this?
genotype + environment = phenotype.
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do identical twins have a different genotype or phenotype?
phenotype.
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what can a gene be?
recessive or dominant.
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when does a recessive gene only show?
if the individual has 2 copies of the recessive gene e.g. the gene to have blue eyes is recessive because you need 2 copies of the gene.
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when does a dominant gene show?
always, even if the individual has only 1 copy of the gene.
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what is cystic fibrosis caused by?
a recessive allele. you need to inherit 2 copies of the faulty allele to have CF. if you have just 1 you are a carrier but have no symptoms.
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Card 2

Front

what do they do?

Back

they send and receive electrical information or nerve impulses either from other neurones or cells e.g. muscle cells, heart cells

Card 3

Front

what does a sensory neurone do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

what do motor neurones do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

what do interconnecting neurones do?

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Preview of the front of card 5
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