Biopsychology-The nervous system

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  • Created by: Anca.a
  • Created on: 04-04-18 15:56
What is the nervous system?
A specialised network of cells in the human body
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What is its two main functions?
To collect, process and respond to info in the environment and to coordinate the working of different organs and cells in the body.
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What is the central nervous system made up of?
Brain and spinal cord.
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What is the brain?
It is the centre of all conscious awareness. The brain's outer layer (the cerebral cortex) is highly developed in humans and is what distinguishes our higher mental functions from those of animals.
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What is the spinal cord?
responsible for reflex actions such as pulling your hand away from a hot plate. It passes messages to and from the brain and connect nerves to the PNS.
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What is the Peripheral nervous system?
The PNS transmits messages via millions of neurons to and from the CNS. It is subdivided into the ANS and the SNS.
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Autonomic nervous system:
Governs vital functions in the body, such as breathing, heart rate, digestion, stress response etc. Involuntary (automatic)
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Somatic Nervous System:
Controls muscle movements and receives information from sensory receptors (Volunary)
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The endocrine system:
Works alongside the nervous system to control vital functions in the body. Various glands in the body eg. thyroid gland produce hormones & these hormones are secreted into the blood stream and affect cells with a specific receptor for that hormone.
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What is the major endocrine gland?
The pituitary gland located in the brain because it controls the release of hormones from all the other endocrine glands in the body
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What two systems work in parallel with each other during a stressful event?
The endocrine system and the autonomic nervous system.
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What happens when a stressor is perceived?
The ANS changes from its parasympathetic state(normal resting state) to the sympathetic state (physiologically aroused)
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What happens in the sympathetic, fight or flight response?
The hypothalamus creates the sympathomedullary pathway, meaning it activates the adrenal medulla (ANS) which releases adrenaline and noradrenaline. This increases the heart rate and blood pressure and is a shirt term response to stress.
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What happens in the sympathetic, long term response to stress?
The hypothalmic pituitary adrenal pathway. The hypothalamus stimulates the pituitary gland to release hormone ACTH, which triggers the adrenal cortex to release corticosteroids. These release stored glucose from liver, suppress the immune system etc.
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What happens in the parasympathetic nervous system?
When the threat has passed, the body returns to its resting state and its actions are antagonistic, meaning it works in opposition to the SNS. It reduces the sympathetic arousal by decreasing heart rate, increasing digestion, constricting dilation.
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What does this shifting between the SNS and PNS help with?
It keeps your body ready for your current situation.
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A researcher investigated the relationship between illness and life events. Procedure:
She gave 150 participants a questionnaire in which they indicated the number of life events (from a list of 20) they had experienced in last 3 years.Comapred with no. of days off work the p's had had over the same period.
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Results:
The researcher found a positive correlation between the two co-variables(stressful life events and days off sick)
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Conclusion:
As their exposure to stress increased the number of days off sick also increased. Shows that people who get ill have often experienced major stressful life events in previous few months/years.
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Card 2

Front

What is its two main functions?

Back

To collect, process and respond to info in the environment and to coordinate the working of different organs and cells in the body.

Card 3

Front

What is the central nervous system made up of?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the brain?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the spinal cord?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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