Biopsychology-the brain

  • Created by: Anca.a
  • Created on: 07-04-18 14:01
What is phrenology?
Franz Gall proposed that a persons personality was reflected in bumps on the skull that in turn reflected functions of the brain lying underneath the bump.
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Broca case study:
Over 4 years, Broca accumulated a dozen cases where symptoms were a lack of speech production but intact speech comprehension.
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What did autopsies reveal in Broca's case study?
Showed damage to the same area at the base of the frontal lobe ONLY in the left hemisphere.So Broca concluded that speech production was localised in that area of the frontal lobe, now known as Broca's area.
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What is Broca's aphasia?
Where speech production is lost but comprehension is intact.
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Wernicke case study:
Studied a patient who suffered a stroke and had trouble with speech.After investigation, Wernicke found that the patient had a lesion in the temporal, parietal and occipital lobes
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Wernicke's autopsy findings:
He studies patients that could not understand speech but could produce fluent speech(often disconnected from surroundings).Autopsy findings showed that all patients had damage in the area of the left hemisphere at the top of the temporal lobe.
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What is this area now known as?
Wernicke's area
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What is Wernicke's aphasia?
the syndrome of intact speech production but loss of comprehension
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First step of early simple model of speech:
It saw Wernicke's area as containing our store of words, so when we want to speak, the word is located and activated in the Wernicke's area and the info is transmitted to the Broca's area.
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Second step:What does the Broca's area contain?
contains motor plans for the word, that is patterns of muscle activation that allow us to speak a particular word
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Third step:where is this pattern transmitted?
it's transmitted to the motor cortex, where the muscles of our vocal apparatus are activated and the word is spoken.
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What occurs in the brain when reading?
It involves the visual system:the word we read is transmitted to the visual cortex for initial processing, then passed to the angular gyrus.This info is passed to the Wernicke's area(contains our internal lexicon)where the word can be recognised.
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What occurs in the brain when writing?
Word is activated in the Wernicke's area, then passed to Broca's area where the motor plans for writing the word can be transmitted to the motor cortex.
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What happens if the angular gyrus is damaged?
the person cannot read(alexia).However, the Wernicke and Broca's areas are intact so the person can write.This means the person can write, but not read what they've written.
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What do these studies show overall?
The brain is organised in a highly systematic way, with functions localised to specific areas.
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What does the somatosensory cortex do?
receives sensory input from receptors in the skin, like touch, pain, pressure etc. from all areas of the body surface.Head areas represented at the bottom of postcentral gyrus,and legs and feet at the bottom.
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What does the motor cortex do?
In the precentral gyrus.Stimulation of tiny areas of the motor cortex can produce movements of individual muscle fibres in the appropriate part of the body.
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How is the motor cortex organised systematically?
muscles of the legs and the feet at the top and the musculature of our vocal apparatus at the bottom
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Language and hemispheric lateralization:how are the sensory and motor processes organised?
somatosensory and motor pathways are crossed, connecting the left hemisphere to the right side of the body and the right hemisphere to the left side of the body, but the cortical organisation is the same for each hemisphere
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What did the work of Broca and Wernicke show us?
it contributed to our understanding og the brain mechanisms of language, mostly the lateralisation of language to the left hemisphere.
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Card 2

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Broca case study:

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Over 4 years, Broca accumulated a dozen cases where symptoms were a lack of speech production but intact speech comprehension.

Card 3

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What did autopsies reveal in Broca's case study?

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Card 4

Front

What is Broca's aphasia?

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Card 5

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Wernicke case study:

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