Biopsychology and Approaches Key Terms

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What is ACTH?
Hormone released by the pituitary gland. Stimulates the adrenal glands to release adrenaline into the bloodstream
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What is Action potential?
A spike in electric in an axon caused by sodium ions crossing the cell membrane
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What are Adrenal glands?
Small glands on top of each kidney that produce hormones such as adrenaline and cortisol.
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What is Adrenaline?
Key hormone in the stress response that is produced by the adrenal glands and increases heart rate, breathing rate etc.
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What is the Autonomic nervous system?
Sub-division of the peripheral nervous system that controls involuntary responses like breathing and heart rate.
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What is an Axon?
A single long slender fiber that carries the nerve impulse away from the cell body
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What is the Axon terminal?
The very end of the axon that contains neurotransmitters and makes synaptic contact with the next neuron in the chain
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What is Behaviourism?
The theory that human and animal behaviour can be explained in terms of conditioning, without considering thoughts or feelings.
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What is the Central Nervous system?
Sub-system of the nervous system that consists of the brain and spinal cord
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What is a Chromosome?
It holds the genetic material that is passed between parents and offspring. Humans have 23 pairs.
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What is Classical Conditioning?
Learning through association when two stimuli are repeatedly paired together
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What is Cognitive Neuroscience?
An academic field that studies the influence of brain structures on mental processes using techniques such as brain scans
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What is a Computer model?
Software simulations of internal mental processes that are created in collaboration with computer scientists.
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What is the Concordance rate?
The extent to which both twins share the same characteristic
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What is a Dendrite?
Root like structures protruding from the cell body that receives signals from other neurons
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What are DZ twins?
Non-identical twins who share 50% of their DNA
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What does Empirical mean?
Based on the scientific testing or personal experience rather than theory or logic
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What is the Endocrine system?
A collection of organs that secretes hormones into the blood stream
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What is Evolution?
Gradual changes in an inherited chracteristics of a species over many generations
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What is Excitation?
Occurs when a link between a neurotransmitter and receptor site in a synapse makes the receptor site's cell more likely to act
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What is the Flight or fight response?
The way an animal (including humans) responds to stress as it becomes physiologically aroused to fight an aggressor or to run away
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What is a Genotype?
A person's unique genetic make-up that is coded in their chromosomes and fixed at conception
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What is a Hormone?
Biochemical substances that circulates in the bloodstream in order to target specific organs
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What is the Hypothalamus?
Part of the Brain that links the nervous sytem to the endocrine system. Releases hormones that stimulate the pituitary gland.
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What is Identification?
Associating with a role model and adopting their behaviour because you want to be like them
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What is Imitation?
Copying or reproducing behaviour that has been learned through observation
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What is Inference?
Process of drawing conclusions about general patterns of behaviour
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What is the Information processing model?
The idea that information flows through the cognitive system in a sequence of stages
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What is Inhibition?
It occurs when a link between a neurotransmitter and receptor site in a synapse makes the receptor site's cell less likely to act.
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What is the Internal Mental processes?
The operations both conscious and unconscious that occur during thinking. for example, perception and memory
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What does Introspection mean?
Observing and examining your own conscious thoughts and emotions
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What is Learning?
A relatively lasting change in behaviour that is the result of experience
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What are the Mediating cognitive factors?
Internal mental processes that lie between the stimulus and the response.
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What is Modelling?
Imitating a role model or producing a specific behaviour that may then be imitated by the observer
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What is a Motor Neuron?
Carries signals from the Central nervous system to internal organs and muscles
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What is a Myelin Sheath?
A fatty layer that protects the exon and speeds up the electrical transmission of the nerve impulse
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What are MZ twins?
Identical twins who share 100% of their genes
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What is Natural selection?
The way that any genetically determined behaviour that enhances the ability to survive and reproduce will continue in future generations
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What is Negative reinforcement?
Avoiding or removing something unpleasant when a behaviour is
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What is the Nervous system?
Bodily system consisting of Central nervous system and peripheral nervous system that provides rapid responses to stimuli
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What is a Neuron?
Cells within the nervous system that process and transmit messages
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What is a Neurotransmitter?
Chemicals that transfer signals from one neuron to another across the synapses that lie between them
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What is being Objective?
Not being influences by private emotions, perceptions, or biases
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What is Operant Conditioning?
Learning through reinforcement where behaviour is shaped and maintained by its consequences
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What is the Parasympathetic nervous system?
Sub-division of the autonomic nervous system that controls the 'rest and digest' response.
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What is the Peripheral nervous system?
Sub-system of the nervous system that transmits messages from the body to the central nervous system and back again.
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What is a Phenotype?
The expression of a person's genetic make-up that can be influenced by the environment
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What is the Pituitary gland?
The 'master gland' of the endocrine system which is located in the brain and controls the release of hormones from other glands
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What is Positive reinforcement?
Receiving something pleasant when a behaviour is performed that increases the chance the behaviour is repeated
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What are the Postsynaptic Receptor sites?
In the dendrites of the receiving neuron, they take up the neurotransmitter once it has crossed the synaptic gap
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What is Punishment?
Receiving something unpleasent when a behaviour is performed which decreases the chance the behaviour is repeated
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What is Reciprocal determinism?
The way a person is influenced by their environment but also influences their environment
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What is a Relay neuron?
Carries signals between sensory and motor neuron or connect to other relay neurones within the central nervous system
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What is a Response?
The reaction to a specific stimulus e.g. salivating when you see food
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What is a Schema?
Mental frameworks of Information that we use to organise past experiences and to interpret and respond to new situations
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What is a Sensory Neuron?
Carries signals from the senses to the Central nervous system
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What is the Social Learning theory?
The view that people learn though observing others
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What is the Somatic Nervous system?
Sub-division of the peripheral nervous system that controls muscle movements and receives information from sensory receptors
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What is Stimulus?
Anything in the environment detectable by the senses e.g. sound, smell
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What is a Structuralism?
Using the experiment method to find the building blocks of thought
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What does subjective mean?
Being effected by personal feelings, prejudices and interpretations
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What is the Sympathetic Nervous system?
Sub-division of the Autonomic nervous system that controls the 'fight or flight' response
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What is a Synapse?
The tiny gap between a neuron and the next
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What is a synaptic transmission?
The way that signals between neurons are transmitted chemically across the synaptic gap.
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What is the Theoretical model?
Diagrammatic representations of the steps involved in internal mental processes, e.g. the information-processing model
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What is a Twin study?
It is used to determine the likelihood that certain traits have a genetic basis by comparing concordance rates between pairs of twins
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What is Vicarious reinforcement?
Observing someone else being reinforced for a behaviour and the consequences of their actions
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Comments

Audrey

Very helpful, thank you !!!!

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