Biopsychology

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  • Created by: Moldred
  • Created on: 13-04-16 10:22
Central Nervous System
Has 2 main functions: controlling behavior and regulating the body's physical needs. It includes the brain and spinal cord.
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CNS - The Spinal Cord
It relays information between the brain and the body so that the brain can monitor and regulate the body's processes. Pairs of spinal nerves connect it to the body, which contain circuits of nerves that enables reflexes.
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CNS - The Brain
Has for main areas: the cerebrum, cerebellum, deincephalon and the brain stem.
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CNS - The Brain: the cerebrum.
It's the largest part of the brain and contains 4 lobes (for example the pre-frontal lobe responsible for speech). Its split into 2 hemispheres with their own behaviours. The communicate through the corpus callosum.
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CNS - The Brain: the cerebellum
Controls motor skills, balance and coordinating the muscles. Abnormalities can cause speech and motor problems and epilepsy.
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CNS - The Brain: the deincephalon
Contains two important structures: the thalamus is a relay station for nerve impulses coming from the senses and the hypothalamus regulates the body's temperature, hunger and thirst.
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CNS - The Brain: the brain stem
Regulates automatic functions like breathing and swallowing. Both motor and sensory neurons travel through the brain stem.
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The Peripheral Nervous System
Relays nerve impulses from the CNS to the rest of the body. There are two main divisions in the PNS: the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system.
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PNS - The Somatic Nervous System
Made up of 12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31 pairs of spinal nerves, which have both sensory and motor neurons allowing for quick reflexes without the involvement of the CNS.
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PNS - The Somatic Nervous System: sensory neurons
Relay messages to the CNS from the body.
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PNS - The Somatic Nervous System: motor neurons
Relay messages from the CNS to the body.
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PNS - The Autonomic Nervous System.
Necessary for vital bodily functions as it is responsible for involuntary actions such as breathing, digestion and heartbeat. It has to parts: the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems.
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PNS - The Autonomic Nervous System: the sympathetic nervous system
Increases heart rate and blood pressure, dilating blood vessels, preparing the body for quick, rapid actions (fight or flight~).
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PNS - The Autonomic Nervous System: the parasympathetic nervous system
Has an inhibiting effect, decreasing heart rate and blood pressure, starting digestion again, allowing the body to relax.
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Neurons
Cells that carry neural information throughout the body. The consist of a cell body, dendrites and an axon.
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Sensory Neurons
Carries impulses from sensory receptors and coverts the information into neural impulses.
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Motor Neurons
Controls muscle contractions: the strength of the muscle contraction depends on the rate of firing from the axons.
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Relay Neurons
Allows the sensory and motor neurons to communicate in the brain and spinal cord.
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Synapse
The conjunction of the end of the axon of one neuron and the dendrites or cell body of another.
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Synaptic Transmission
An electrical impulse reaches the end of the axon and has to cross a synaptic gap. Neurotransmitters are released that bind to receptors, this activates the postynaptic neuron to produce another neurotransmitter.
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Neurotransmitters
Chemical messengers that carry signals across the synaptic gap to receptor site on the post synaptic cell.
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Exitatory Neurotransmitters
such as noradrenaline, increases the likelihood of neurons firing.
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Inhibitory Neurotransmitters
such as serotonin, decreases the the likelihood of neurons firing.
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The Endocrine System
a network of glands throughout the body that make and release chemical messages known as hormones.
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Hormones
The bodies chemical messengers. They travel through the bloodstream, influencing different processes.
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Endocrine Glands
Cells within the endocrine system whose function is to produce and release hormones. Each gland produces a different hormones which regulate activity of tissues and organs in the body.
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Pituitary Glands
The master gland, which releases hormones such as ACTH which stimulates the adrenal glands, and is controlled by the hypothalamus.
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Adrenal Glands
Sits on top of the kidney and consists of two parts, the adrenal cortex that releases hormones essential for functioning and the adrenal medulla releases non essential hormone.
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Ovaries
The female reproductive organs that produces eggs and oestrogen and progesterone.
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Fight and Flight response
A sequence of activity within the body that is triggered when the body prepares itself for defending or attacking. This involves changes in the nervous system and the secretion of hormones that are necessary to sustain arousal.
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The response: HANSAN
Amygdala -> Hypothalamus -> Autonomic NS -> Sympathetic or Parasympathetic -> Adrenal Medulla releases adrenaline and noradrenaline.
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Acute Stressors
sudden such as an attack
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Chronic Stressors
ongoing such as a stressful job
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Adrenaline Effects
Heart beats faster, blood to muscles, rapid breathing, glucose is released.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

It relays information between the brain and the body so that the brain can monitor and regulate the body's processes. Pairs of spinal nerves connect it to the body, which contain circuits of nerves that enables reflexes.

Back

CNS - The Spinal Cord

Card 3

Front

Has for main areas: the cerebrum, cerebellum, deincephalon and the brain stem.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

It's the largest part of the brain and contains 4 lobes (for example the pre-frontal lobe responsible for speech). Its split into 2 hemispheres with their own behaviours. The communicate through the corpus callosum.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Controls motor skills, balance and coordinating the muscles. Abnormalities can cause speech and motor problems and epilepsy.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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