Biopsychology

  • Created by: sophie_rw
  • Created on: 14-03-19 22:20
Function of the Nervous System
To collect, process and respond to info in the environment. And to coordinate the working of different organs and cells in the body.
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Function of the Peripheral Nervous System
Transmits messages via neurons to and from CNS. Splits into ANS and PNS.
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Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)
Governs vital functions in the body such as breathing, heart rate, digestion, stress response.
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Somatic Nervous System (SNS)
Controls muscle movement and recieves info from sensory receptors.
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Endocrine System
Works alongside nervous system to crontrol vital functions in the body via hormones.
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Pituitary gland
‘Master gland’ controls release of hormones from all other endocrine glands.
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Hormones
Secreted in bloodstream and affect any cell with a receptor for the that hormone.
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Thyroxine hormone
Produced by thyroid gland, affects cells that increase metabolic rate and therefore growth rate.
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Adrenaline hormone
Produced by adrenal medulla, causes increased heart rate, pupil dilation, and inhibits digestion and saliva production.
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Fight or flight response
Stressor is perceived. Hypothalamus triggers sympathetic branch of ANS. Adrenaline is released causing increased HR, breathing etc. Afterwards, parasympathetic returns body to resting state.
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Sensory neurons
Carry messages from PNS to the CNS . Long dendrites and short axons.
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Relay neurons
Connect sensory to motor neurons or other relay neurons. Short dendrites and short axons
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Motor neurons
Connect CNS to effectors such as muscles and glands. Short dendrites and long axons.
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Electric transmission-the firing of a neuron
When a neuron is activated, it becomes positively charged causing an action potential. This creates an electrical impulse that travels down the axon.
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Chemical transmission-at the synapse
When electrical impulse reaches terminal buttons on presynaptic neuron and neurotransmitter is released from synaptic vesicles across the synapse. It’s taken up by the postsynaptic receptor site. Chemical message converted back to original.
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Serotonin neurotransmitter
Affects mood and social behaviour. Generally inhibitory, increasing negative charge of postsynaptic neuron- less likely to fire.
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Adrenaline neurotransmitter
Excitory, increasing positive charge of postsynaptic neuron, more likely to fire.
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Dopamine neurotransmitter
Excitory and inhibitory.
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Localisation of function
Specific areas of the brain liked to specific physical and psychological functions. If an area of the brain is damaged the function associated with it is also affected.
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Strength of localisation theory: brain scan evidence
Peterson used brain scan to show activity in Wernicke’s area during a listening task and Broca’s area during a reading task, suggesting they have different functions. Tulving’s LTM study showed episodic and semantic mems are located in diff areas.
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Limitation of loacalisation theory: contradictory research (learning is too complex to be localised)
Lashley suggests higher cog functions (e.g learning processes) aren’t localised but distributed in a more holistic way in the brain. 10 and 50% of the cortex in rats learning a maze were removed. No area was more important in learning the maze.
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Cerebral cortex
Like a tea cosy covering the inner parts of the brain. Highly developed and separates us from lower animals. Appears grey due to location of cell bodies-‘grey matter’.
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Motor area
Back of frontal lobe. Voluntary movement. Damage=loss of fine motor
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Somatosensory area
Front of parietal lobes. Sensory info from skin.
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Visual area
Occipital lobe at back of brain. Each eye sends info from right visual field to the left visual cortex and vice versa.
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Auditory area
Temporal lobe. Speech based info. Damage may result in hearing loss.
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Broca’s area
Left frontal lobe. Damage causes broca’s aphasia- slow speech, lacking in fluency. Difficulty naming certain objects.
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Wernicke’s area
Back of temporal lobe. Produce fluent, but meaningless speech. Often produce nonsense words.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Function of the Peripheral Nervous System

Back

Transmits messages via neurons to and from CNS. Splits into ANS and PNS.

Card 3

Front

Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Somatic Nervous System (SNS)

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Endocrine System

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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