Biopsychology

What are the three main types of neuron?
sensory, relay, motor
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Where are sensory neurons found, and what do they do?
found in receptors (such as eyes, ears, tongue and skin). They carry nerve impulses to spinal cord and brain
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Where are relay neurons found, and what do they do?
Found in the brain and spinal cord, between sensory input and motor response. Allow sensory and motor neurons to communicate.
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Where are relay neurons found, and what do they do?
Found in CNS. Control msucle movements
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How do motor neurons work?
When they are stimulated they release neurotransmitters that bind to the receptors on muscles to trigger a response, which leads to movement.
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How do motor neurons work?
when these nerve impulses reach the brain, they are translated into 'sensations', such as vision, hearing, taste and touch. However, not all sensory neutrons reach the brain, some stop at spinal cord to allow quick relflex actions
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What are the main parts of a sensory neuron?
Recepto cell, myelin sheath, axon, cell body
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What are the main parts of a relay neuron?
Dendrites, cell body, axon, pre-synaptic terminal
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What are the main parts of a motor neuron?
Dendrites, cell body, axon, myelin sheath, neurofibril node
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What do dendrites do?
receive signals from other neurons or from sensory receptor cells. Typically connected to the cell body, often referred to as the 'control centre of the neutron, containing the nucleus.
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What is an axon?
A long slender fibre that carries nerve impulses, as an electrical signal, away from the cell body towards the axon terminals, where the neutron ends.
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What is the electrical signal known as that travels along the axon?
Action Potential
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What is a myelin sheath?
Most axons are surrounded by a myelin sheath (except fro relay neurons) which insulates the axon so that the electrical signal travels faster along the axon
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What is an axon terminal ?
Connects the neutron to other neurons (or directly or organs), using a process called synaptic transmission.
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What is a synapse?
Junction between two nerve cells, consisting of a small gap in which impulses pass across by diffusion of a neurotransmitter
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What are neurotransmitters?
chemical messengers that carry signals to other cells.
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What is an example of an inhibitory response?
Serotonin - reduces action potentials
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What is an example of an excitatory response?
Dopamine - increases action potentials
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What is an example of an excitatory response?
Excitatory neurotransmitters make the post-synaptic cell more likely to fire messages
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What is an example of an inhibitory response?
Inhibitory neurotransmitters make them less likely to fire
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What does CNS stand for?
central nervous system
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What does PNS stand fro?
peripheral nervous system
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What are the two section of the Nervous system?
CNS and PNS
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What is the function of the CNS?
Brain ensures that life is maintained and is in charge of vital functioning as well as higher order thinking, e.g problem solving. Spinal cord transfers messages between the brain, PNS and reflexes.
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What are the structure of the CNS?
Spinal cord and brain
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Does our biological basis of psychological experience stem from PNS or CNS?
CNS
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What is the structure of the PNS?
Has two divisions - semantic (transfer and receive signals from senses, e.g vision from eyes) and autonomic (transmit and receive info from organs).
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What is the function of the PNS?
Semantic division transfers and receives signals from senses, e.g vision from eyes. Autonomic division is further split into the sympathetic system (increases activity) and the parasympathetic system (conserves natural activity- decrease or maintain)
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What is the definition of a hormone?
chemical messages, usually released from glands, that control/regulate activity of certain cells or organs in the body
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What is the hormone released by the Thyroid & what are the effects of this hormone?
Thyroxine - regulates the metabolic rate & protein synthesis.
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What is the hormone released by the Adrenal Medulla & what are the effects of this hormone?
Adrenaline & Noradrenaline - Flight or Fight ( raises heart rate and blood flow, releases glucose and fats).
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What is the hormone released by the Adrenal Cortex & what are the effects of this hormone?
Glucocorticoids & Mineralcorticoids -realease glucose and fats, suppresses the immune system and controls inflammation response
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What is the hormone released by the Testes & what are the effects of this hormone?
Testosterone - develops secondary sex characteristics during puberty, increases the mass and growth of muscles
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What is the hormone released by the Ovaries & what are the effects of this hormone?
Oestrogen - Regulates reproductive system, menstrual cycle and pregnancy
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What is the hormone released by the Pineal & what are the effects of this hormone?
Melatonin - Regulates arousal, bio rhythms, and the sleep-wake cycle
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What does the Adrenocortical Trophic Hormone (ACTH) do?
Located in the adrenal cortex, it stimulates the release of glutocorticoids. Its a key component in the stress response
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What does the Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) do?
Located in the thyroid gland, stimulates the release of thyroxine
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What does Prolactin do?
Located in the mammary glands, stimulates milk production and release
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What does the Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) do?
Found in ovaries and tetes, stimulates release of ovarian follicles and promotes spermatogenesis
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What does the Growth Hormone do?
For general production of cell growth and multiplication in the body
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What does the Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone (MST) do?
Stimulates the production and release of the pigment melatonin in the skin and hair
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What hormones are found in the anterior pituitary?
ACTH, TSH, FSH, MST prolactin and growth
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What hormones are found in the posterior pituitary?
ADH and oxytocin
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What does the Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) / Vasopressin do?
Involved in regulating the water balance in the body; stimulates water absorption by kidney and increases volume
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What does Oxytocin do?
Promotes uterine contractions in childbirth and lactation after birth
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What is the Fight or Flight response?
The body's physiological reaction to threat or danger, generated by the autonomic nervous system, specifically the sympathetic branch. It is a reflex (automatic) response designed to help an individual manage physically when under threat/stress
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What are the two pathways activated during the Fight or Flight response?
Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal cortex pathway (HPA) & Sympathetic-adrenal-medullary-system (SAM) pathway
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What are the functions of the SAM and HPA pathways?
Provide energy and arousal for rapid responses to threat and danger
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What problems can adrenaline cause if there is a lot of it in the bloodstream?
However adrenaline acts directly on the heart and raises blood pressure, therefore if the stress response is maintained for a long time, it could lead to cause damage
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What problems can corticosteroids cause if there is a lot of it in the bloodstream?
Corticosteriods suppress the immune system- leaving the body vulnerable to disease and infection.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Where are sensory neurons found, and what do they do?

Back

found in receptors (such as eyes, ears, tongue and skin). They carry nerve impulses to spinal cord and brain

Card 3

Front

Where are relay neurons found, and what do they do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Where are relay neurons found, and what do they do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How do motor neurons work?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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