biopsychology

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  • Created by: ellajxdie
  • Created on: 19-05-18 15:23
What makes up the Central Nervous System?
Spinal cord and brain
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What are the divisions of the peripheral nervous system?
Somatic and autonomic (further divisible into sympathetic and parasympathetic)
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What are the three types of neuron?
Sensory, motor, relay
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What is the function of a sensory neuron?
Send impulses from a receptor to a motor or relay neuron
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What is the function of a motor neuron?
Send impulses from a sensory or relay neuron to an effector
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What is the function of a relay neuron?
Send impulses between neurons
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Describe the process of synaptic transmission
The nerve impulse travels down the neuron and causes the release of neurotransmitters, which diffuse across the synaptic cleft, and the adjacent neurone
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What is the endocrine system?
The hormonal system
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Give an example of a gland
Pituitary, ovaries, testes, adrenal
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Name the stages of the fight or flight response
the hypothalamus recognises a threat, sending a message to the adrenal gland triggering the release of adrenaline and noradrenaline
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Name the physical changes that occur in the fight or flight response
increased heart rate, increased breathing rate, pupil dilation, muscle tension
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Describe the case study of Phineas Gage
he a polite man, a metal pole was blasted through his frontal lobe, he survived though he became rude and aggressive
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define localisation
Function is specific to one part of the brain
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What functions are localised to the left hemisphere?
Language centres, right body control, right eye, detail
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What functions are localised to the right hemisphere?
Recognising emotion in others, left body control, left eye
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What is the function and location of Broca's area?
Speech production, left frontal lobe
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What is the function and location of Wernicke's area?
Language understanding, left temporal lobe
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What is plasticity?
the ability to replace the function lost by anatomical damage
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Describe increased brain stimulation in brain plasticity
research has shown that stimulation of the undamaged hemisphere of the brain can improve recovery following trauma such as a stroke
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Describe axon sprouting in brain plasticity
when an axon is damaged the connection to the neighbouring axon is lost, other axons that already connect with that neuron will sprout extra connections, replacing the ones lost
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name the factors affecting recovery of the brain after trauma
perseverance, age, physical exhaustion & stress & alcohol consumption and gender
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what is fMRI?
a technique of brain imaging that measures blood flow in the brain
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Distinguish between an EEG and an ERP
EEG is a method of measuring electrical brain activity using electrodes on the scalp, while an ERP uses the same equipment to measure brain activity in response to a specific stimuli
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Name one more way to examine the brain
post-mortem examinations
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define circadian rhythms
biological rhythms that last 24 hours
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define ultradian rhythms
biological rhythms occurring more than once in 24 hours
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define infradian rhythms
biological rhythms lasting more than 24 hours
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What are endogenous pacemakers?
internal body clocks that regulate biological rhythms examples include the SCN and pineal gland
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define exogenous zeitgebers
external stimuli that influence biological rhythms such as light levels
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describe Siffre's research into circadian rhythms
he stayed in a cave with no natural light, his sleep/wake cycle changed to 25-30 hours
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describe McClintock's research into infradian rhythms
wiped sweat from donor women, if it was from women at the end of the cycle and given to someone at the end of the cycle it shortened the menstrual cycle. if the donor women were at the beginning it had the opposite effect
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Card 2

Front

What are the divisions of the peripheral nervous system?

Back

Somatic and autonomic (further divisible into sympathetic and parasympathetic)

Card 3

Front

What are the three types of neuron?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the function of a sensory neuron?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the function of a motor neuron?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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