Biomechanics

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  • Created by: ben
  • Created on: 16-05-14 13:58
what is a scalar quantity?
a quantity that is fully described by magnitude only (only size of mass)
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what is vector quantity?
a quantity that is fully described by magnitude AND direction
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what is mass?
the quantity of matter a body possesses- SCALAR QUANTITY
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what is weight?
the force exerted on the mass of a body by gravity- VECTOR QUANTITY
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what is inertia?
the reluctance of a body to move or change its state of motion. (the bigger the mass of an object, the higher quantity of inertia)
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what is distance?
path a body takes in moving from one position to the other- SCALAR QUANTITY
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what is displacement?
shortest possible route between starting and finishing point. normally a straight line- VECTOR QUANTITY
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what is speed?
a bodys movement per unit of time with no consideration of direction- SCALAR QUANTITY
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what is velocity?
speed of the body with a given direction- VECTOR QUANTITY
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what is acceleration & deceleration?
the rate of change of velocity of an object- VECTOR QUANTITY
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what are the vector and scalar quantities?
Vector- weight, displacement, velocity, acceleration/deceleration.. Scalar- mass, distance, speed.
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what is momentum?
the amount of motion a body posses (measured by mass x velocity)
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how does momentum change and why in this way?
it changes when there is a change in velocity. it only does it when velocity cahnges due to mass stays constant
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what is impulse?
the length and time a force is applied to an objectr and relates to a change in momentum that occurs as a consequence. (measured by force x time)
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in sport why is impulse used?
to add speed or to slow down the object
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name the 3 Newton Laws of Motion
the law of inertia, law of acceleration, law of action & reaction
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what is the first law?
the law of inertia- where the body at rest or moving at a constant velocity will continue in that state unless an external force is exerted upon it
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what is the second law?
the law of acceleration- where the acceleration of an object is directly proportionally to the force acting upon it.
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what is the third law?
the law of action & reaction- for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction
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what are the two types of force and what do they include?
vertical and horizontal forces.. vertical- weight (down) & reaction force (up). horizontal- air resistance (left) & friction (right)
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to accelerate what do the sizes of forces have to be like?
friction larger than air resistance. weight and reaction are insignificant
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to decelerate what do the sizes of forces have to be like?
friction smaller than air resistance. weight and reaction are insignificant
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what 3 factors determine the horizontal displacement of projectile motion?
height of release, velocity of release, angle of release
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what is angular motion?
the motion around an axis when in flight and occurs whenever an external force acts upon a body.
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what are the 3 axis of rotation?
longitudinal, transverse, frontal
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what are torques?
the turning effects or rotational consequences of a force.
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what does the torque depend on?
the size of the force and the moment arm (perpendicular distance from the fulcrum).. torque = size of force x moment arm
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what is moment of inertia?
a measure of the resistance of an object to rotation and the desire of a body to want to continue to rotate
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what is moment of inertia dependent on?
the mass of an object (the greater the mass, the greater its moment of inertia), the distribution of the mass from the axis of rotation (the further the mass away from the axis of rotation, the greater the moment of inertia)
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what happens to angular momentum during flight and why?
it always stay constant due to angular velocity and moment of inertia being inversely proportional so when one goes up the other goes down. it only changes unless an external force is applied. (the law of conservation)
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Card 2

Front

what is vector quantity?

Back

a quantity that is fully described by magnitude AND direction

Card 3

Front

what is mass?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

what is weight?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

what is inertia?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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