Biology(B3)

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What do white blood cells do?
Protects the body against disease.
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What do red blood cells do?
Transport blood from the lungs to the tissues.
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How are red blood cells adapted for their function?
Small and flexible so can pass through narrow blood cells and they don't have a nucleus so can be packed with haemoglobin.
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What is haemoglobin?
The pigment that carries oxygen around the blood.
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What is an artery?
Large blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart.
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What is a vein?
A type of blood vessel the carries blood towards the heart.
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What is the advantage of a double circulatory system?
Blood can be pumped to the body at a higher pressure than to the lungs which provides a greater rate of blood flow to the tissues
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What are the 4 main chambers of the heart?
1.Left ventricle 2.Right ventricle 3.Left atria 4.Right atria
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What do ventricles do?
Contract to pump blood out of the heart.
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Why does the left ventricle have a thicker wall than the right?
Because it pumps blood at a higher pressure as it has to pump blood all around the body, whereas the right just pumps blood to the lungs.
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What do the atria do?
Receive blood coming back to the heart.
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What do the semi-lunar, tricuspid and bicuspid valves do?
Make sure that blood flows in the right direction.(stop back flow of the blood)
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Name all of the parts of the right side of the heart in order...
1.Pulmonary artery 2.Vena cara 3.Semi-lunar valve 4. Right atrium 5.Tricuspid valve 6.Right ventricle
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Name all of the parts of the left side of the heart in order...
1.Aorta 2.pulmonary vein 3.Semi-lunar valve 4.Left atrium 5.Bicuspid valve 6. Left ventricle
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How would you conduct the onion experiment?
1.Use tweezers to take a thin layer of skin from an onion 2.Place the onion tissue on a microscope slide 3.Add a drop of iodine and cover the onion tissue with a cover slip 4.Look at the onion through a microscope at x100 magnification
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What are the differences between plant and animal growth?
-Animals lose the ability to differentiate at a very early stage, plants do not -Animal cells grow to a certain size and then stop. Plant cells grow continuously. -All parts of an animal are involved in growth, whereas plants grow at specific parts
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What is meant by optimum temperature in terms of enzymes?
The ideal temperature for enzyme activity.
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What are gene mutations?
Changes to genes.
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What is aerobic respiration?
Respiration that uses oxygen to produce carbon dioxide, water and energy.
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During exercise what must respiration do?
Speed up
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What is recovery rate?
The time it takes for pulse rate to return back to normal after exercise.
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What is recovery rate a measure of?
Fitness
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What is the word equation for aerobic respiration?
Glucose+oxygen--> Carbon dioxide+water+energy
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What is the symbol equation for aerobic respiration?
C6H12+6O2--> 6CO2+6H20+energy
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Where in the cell does respiration take place?
Mitochondria
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What is anaerobic respiration?
Respiration that does not use oxygen and releases energy from living cells, and producing lactic acid.
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What is lactic acid?
A waste product from anaerobic respiration.
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What can lactic acid cause?
Muscle cramp.
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What is the word equation for anaerobic respiration?
Glucose--> lactic acid+ small amount of energy.
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What are chromosomes?
Long coiled molecules of DNA, divided into regions called genes.
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What does the genetic code do?
Controls cell activity and consequently some activity of the organism.
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What is the respiratory quotient formula?
RQ=carbon dioxide produced/oxygen used
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What is differentiation?
Where simple cells become specialized cells to perform a specific function.
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What is a stem cell?
Cells that have yet to differentiate.
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What are the risks and disadvantages of selective breeding?
Can reduce gene pool, and less variation. This can lead to accumulation of harmful recessive characteristics.
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Why is genetic modification used in plants?
-To improve crop resistance -To improve the quality of food -To produce a required substance
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What is genetic engineering?
The alteration of the genetic makeup of an organism.
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What are the benefits of genetic modification in plants?
-Produce disease resistance crops at higher yields -Creating crops that will grow in poor or dry soil -Potentially replacing faulty genes to reduce certain diseases
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What does a cell contain?
-Cytoplasm -A cell membrane -A nucleus -Mitochondria
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Where are ribosomes located and what do they do?
They ae locate in the nucleus of a cell and they are the site of protein synthesis
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What sequence are bases in, and what do they code for?
A-T C-G They provide the genetic code.
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What are genes made from?
A chemical called DNA
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How many chromosomes does a normal human cell have?
23 pairs (46)
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How many chromosomes does a normal human gamete have?
23
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What are the two coiled strands of DNA called?
Double helix
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Who first worked out the structure of DNA?
Watson and Crick
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Describe protein synthesis...
Proteins are made in the cytoplasm, but DNA cannot leave the nucleus so a copy of DNA has to be made called the mRNA, this can then eave the nucleus meaning it can get to where the ribosomes are located, meaning protein synthesis takes place.
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Name four proteins and their functions...
1.Collagen- structural 2.Insulin-hormones 3.Haemoglobin-carrier molecule 4.Enzymes
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What are the benefits of cloning?
-Genetically identical cloned animals all have the same characteristic -The sex of the animal and the timing or the birth can be controlled
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What are the ethical dilemmas of cloning?
-Very unreliable -Cloned animals have a limited lifespan -Religious views -very controversial
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What is an embryo?
An organism in the early stages of development
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What can cloning be used for?
-Could provide stem cells for medical purposes -The mass production of animals with desired characteristics -Producing animals that have been genetically engineered for humans?
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What are the concerns with genetic modification?
GM plants can crossbreed with wild plants and release their new genes, GM foods may not be safe to eat, could lead to 'designer babies', unborn babies with genetic faults could be aborted.
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What is it called when the body takes in the oxygen that wasn't available?
Repaying the oxygen debt
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What are the properties of a sperm that make it useful?
-Tail which makes it mobile -Lots of mitochondria to supply energy for swimming -Acrosome, which bursts releasing enzymes that digest the cells membrane.
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What is fertillisation?
The fusion of a male gamete with a female gamete
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What is mitosis?
The type of cell division that produces two daughter cells.
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What is mitosis needed for?
-The replacement of worn out cells -Repair to damaged tissue -Asexual reproduction
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What is the process of mitosis?
1.Parent with two pairs of chromosomes 2.Each chromosome copies itself 3.Chromosomes line up along the centre of the cell, divide and the copies move to the opposite poles 4.Two daughter cells are made which are identical to the parent cell.
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What is meiosis?
Cell division that produces gametes with half a chromosome set.
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What is the process if meiosis?
1.Cell with two pairs of chromosomes 2.Each chromosome replicates itself 3.Chromosomes part company and move to opposite poles 4.Cell divides for the first time 5.Copies now separate and the second cell division takes place 6.Four haploid cells
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What are the 4 components of blood?
-Platelets -Plasma -White blood cells -Red blood cells
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What does plasma do?
Transports substances around the body e.g. glucose, water, hormones, anti-bodies and waste products
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What do platelets do?
Clamp together when a blood vessel becomes damaged to produce a clot.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What do red blood cells do?

Back

Transport blood from the lungs to the tissues.

Card 3

Front

How are red blood cells adapted for their function?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is haemoglobin?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is an artery?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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Comments

Krishy Wishy

Excuse me,

I think this the B7 modu

Krishy Wishy

Excuse me,

I think this the B7 modu

Krishy Wishy

-le, B3 is how a species depends on each other; the theory of evolution and the importance of biodiversity.

Kind regards,

Krishy Wishy

taqinisa

b2 not b3

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