Biology(all topics)

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Classification!! What does classification mean?
Classification means grouping things by their features or characteristics.
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Classification!! What are the groups?
The groups are as follows: kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species.
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Classification!! What are the five kingdoms of organisms?
The five groups of organisms are as follows: animilia, plantae, fungi, protoctista and prokaryotae.
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Vertebrates and invertebrates!! What are the main vertebrate groups?
The main vertebrate groups are as follows: oxygen absorbtion, fertilisation, reproduction and thermoregulation.
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Species!! What is a species?
A species is a group of organisms that can breed with each other and produce fertile offspring.
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Species!! What are hybrids?
Hybrids are created when species interbreed.
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Binomical classification!! What is the genus name?
The genus name is the first name.
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Binomical classification!! What is the species name?
The species name is the second name.
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Reasons for variety!! What is discontinuous variation?
Human blood group is an example of discontinuous variation. There are only 4 types of blood group. There are no other possibilities and there are no values in between. So this is discontinuous variation.
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Reasons for variety!! What is continuous variation?
Human height is an example of continuous variation. Height ranges from that of the shortest person in the world to that of the tallest person. Any height is possible between these values. So it is continuous variation.
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Reasons for variety!! What is acquired characteristic?
An acquired characteristic is one that is changed by the environment.
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Evolution!! What is natural selection?
Natural selection is when members of a species are able to survuve in their environment and produce more healthy offspring than others.
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Genes!! What is a gene?
A gene is a short piece of DNA at a particular point on a chromosome.
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Genes!! What is a allele?
An allele is a gene that can come in different forms.
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Genes!! What is heterozygous?
Heterozygous is different alleles of the same genes.
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Genes!! What is homozygous?
Homozygousi is the same alleles on the same genes.
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Genes!! What is the genotype?
Genotype shows the alleles in the individual. eg. BB, Bb, bb etc.
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Genes!! What is phenotype?
Phenotype means the characteristics that are produced.
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Explaining inheritance!! What is monohybrid inheritance?
Monohybrid inheritance is a characteristice which is controlled by a single gene.
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Genetic disorders!! What is a family pedigree?
A family pedigree is a diagram that shows the inheritance of a characteristic in a family.
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Homeostasis!! What is osmoregulation?
Osmoregulation controls how much water is lost in urine, and so controls the amount of water in the body.
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Homeostasis!! What is thermoregulation?
Thermoregulation keeps core body temperature steady at around 37 degrees celcius.
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Sensitivity!! What does the human nervous system include?
The human nervous system includes: the central nervous system, the sense organs and the nerves.
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Sensitivity!! What are the three types of neurones?
The three types of neurones are: sensory neurones, motor neurones and relay neurones.
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Responding to stimuli!! What is a synapse?
A synapse is the point at which two neurones meet.
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Hormones!! What are hormones?
Hormones are chemical messengers.
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Hormones!! What are hormones produced by?
Hormones are produced by endocrine glands and released into the blood.
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Hormones!! What is blood glucose regulation?
Blood glucose regulation is another example of homeostasis. It is controlled by to hormones: insulin and glucagon.
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Diabetes!! What is type 1 diabetes?
Type 1 diabetes is when not enough insulin is produced in their pancreas.
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Diabetes!! What is type 2 diabetes?
Type 2 diabetes is when the liver and muscle cells become or are resistant to insulin.
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Plant hormones!! What is a tropism?
A tropism is a plants response to a stimulus.
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Plant hormones!! What is a positive tropism?
A positive tropism is when the plant grows towards a stimulus.
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Plant hormones!! What are plant growth substances?
Plant growth substances are chemicals the cause changes in the plant eg. auxins make cells grow longer, gibberellins can make plant shoots grow longer, they also control when seeds germinate.
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Plant hormones!! What are auxins affected by and what do they cause?
Auxins are affected by light and cause phototropism in shoots.
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Uses of plant hormones!! What do we use plant hormones for?
We use plant hormones to control the way plants grow.
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Effects of drugs!! What is a drug?
A drug is a chemical that affects the central nervous system.
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Effects of drugs!! What is the affects of painkillers?
Painkillers block nerves impulses from pain receptors so you don't feel as much pain.
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Effects of drugs!! What is the affects of stimulants?
Stimulants increase neurotransmitters at synapses, so increases speed of reaction, which reduces reaction time.
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Effects of drugs!! What is the affects of depressants?
Depressants slow the activity of the brain, so increases reaction time.
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Effects of drugs!! What is the affects of hallucinogens?
Hallucinogens change perception, e.g. colours seem brighter, can make it difficult to distinguish between real or not real.
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The effects of alcohol!! What are the short term effects of drinking alcohol?
The short term effects of drinking alcohol are blurred vision, slow reactions and lowered inhibitions.
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The effects of alcohol!! What are the long term effects of drinking alcohol?
The long term effects of drinking alcohol are brain damage and liver cirrhosis.
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Pathogens and infection!! What is an infectious disease?
An infectious disease is one that can be passed from one person to another.
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Pathogens and infection!! What is a pathogen?
A pathogen is an organism that causes an infectious disease.
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Pathogens and infection!! What are the different ways of spreading pathogens?
The different ways of spreading pathogens are eating food, by blood, breathing, by drinking water, exchange of body fluids and direct contact.
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Antiseptics and antibiotics!! What is a antibiotic?
An antibiotic is a chemical taken as medicine that kills some kind of microorganisms, or stops them growing, after they have infected the body.
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Antiseptics and antibiotics!! What is antibacterial?
Antibacterial is the general name for chemicals that kill bacteria or stops them growing.
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Antiseptics and antibiotics!! What is antifunal?
Antifungal is a chemical that kills fungi or stops them growing.
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Antiseptics and antibiotics!! What is antiseptic?
Antiseptic is a chemical used to prevent infection by killing pathogens on surfaces before they can get into the body.
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Interdependance and food webs!! What is the biomass?
Biomass is the mass of an organisms body tissue.
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Card 2

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Classification!! What are the groups?

Back

The groups are as follows: kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species.

Card 3

Front

Classification!! What are the five kingdoms of organisms?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Vertebrates and invertebrates!! What are the main vertebrate groups?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

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Species!! What is a species?

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