Biology Vocab

Key vocab from unit one.

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Pathogen
Any organism that causes disease.
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Toxins
Harmful molecules.
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Antigen
Molecules (proteins or polysaccharides) found on the surface ofcells used to identify them.
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Lysosome
An organelle that contains lysosomal enzymes.
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Antibodies
Proteins that bind antigens to form an antigen-antibody complex. Made up of two short polypeptide chains joined to two heavy chains.
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Digestion
The process through which large molecules in food are broken down into smaller ones.
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Polymers
Large complex molecules that are composed of long chains of monomers.
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Insoluble
Cannot be dissolved (therefore cannot be absorbed directly into the bloodstream)>
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Hydrolysed
Break down a compound by a chemical reaction with water.
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Oesophagus
The tube that takes food from the mouth to the stomach through peristalsis.
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Peristalsis
Waves of muscle contractions.
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Gastric Juice
Hydrochloric acid, pepsin and mucus. Produced in th stomach walls.
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Chyme
An acidic fluid made up of digested food.
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The stomach
A small, folded sac, with an entrance and exit contrrolled by sphincter muscles.
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Small intestine
Made up of duodenum and ileum. Chyme is moved through by peristalsis.
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Duodenum
Bile and pancreatic juice neutralises the acididty of the chyme and break it down into small molecules.
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Ileum
Small, soluble molecules such as glucose and water are absorbed through the villi.
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Large Intestine
Water, salts and minerals are absorbed. It has a folded wall. Bacteria that decompose undigested nutrients are found here.
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Rectum
Faeces are stored here and pass through sphincter muscles at the **** during defecation.
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Salivary Glands
Secrete saliva consisting of mucus, mineral salts and salivary amylase. This breaks down starch into maltose.
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Pancreas
Releases pancreatic juice into the duodenum through the pancreatic duct. Also contains sodium hydrogencarbonate to neutralise hydrochloric acid.
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Amylase
Salivary amylase produced in the salivary glands breaks down starch into maltose and works at pH7.
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Protease
pepsin produced in the stomach lining breaks down proteins into small polypeptides and works at pH1.5-2.
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Lipase
Pancreatic Lipase produced in the pancreas breaks down triglycerides into fatty acids and glycerol and works at pH7.
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Proteins
Large molecules formed of one or more polypeptides.
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Polypeptide
More then two amino acids joined together.
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Condensation
A reaction where two molecules are joined together and a molecule of water is released.
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Peptide Bond
A bond formed by condensation reaction between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another (the carbon and nitrogen).n
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Primary Structure
The sequence of amino acids in the protein.
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Secondary Structure
Polypeptides folded into an α-helix, held together by hydrogen bonds.
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Hydrogen bonds
Bonds which form between an 'N' or 'O' from one amino acid and a H from another.
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Tertiary Structure
The 3-D conformation of a protein, a result of protein folding. Stabilised by hydrogen bonds, hydrophobic interactions, ionic bonds and disulphide bridges formed between R-roups.
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Quaternary Structure
Two or more polypeptide chains associate to form a single protein.
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Prosthetic group
A non-polypepetide group strucuture, e.g haem group in haemoglobin.
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Enzyme
Biological catalysts. Usually spherical due to tight folding. Soluble.
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Transport Proteins
Contain hydrophilic and hydrophobic amino acids, causing them to fold and form a channel, then used to tranport ions and molecules.
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Structural Proteins
Physically strong. Consist of long polypeptide chains lying paralell with cross links in between. Include keratin and collagen.
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Biuret Test
for proteins. Add sodium hydroxide solution to make it alkaline, add copper (II) sulfate solution. Purple=Protein, if not, it will be blue.
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Catalyst
A substance that speeds up a reaction without being used up itself.
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Competitive Inhibitors
Molecules structurally similar to the substrate which bind to the active site of an inhibitor.
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Non-Competitive Inhibitors
Not similar to the substrate and will instead bind to the allosteric site of a enzyme and affect the bonds in its tertiary structure.
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Carbohydrates
Polymers made from monosaccharides.
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Maltose
Turned into glucose and glucose by maltase.
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Sucrose
Turned into glucose and fructose by sucrase.
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Lactose
Turned into glucose and glalactose by lactase.
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Lactose intolerance
A conditon caused by a lack of lactase. Milk can be treated with lactase to make it suitable.
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Starch
A polysaccharide made from two othe rpolysacchardies, amylose and amylopectin, both of which are long chains of α-glucose limked by glycosidic bond.
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Glycosidic bond
A bond formed between two monosaccharides by a condensation reaction.Forms a C-O-C bond.
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Benedict's Test (Reducing sugars).
Test for sugars, reducing and non-reducing. Add Benedict's solution and heat, if it turn brick red reducing sugars are present.
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Benedict's Test (Non-reducing sugars).
Boil with diulte hydrochloric acid and neutralise it with sodium hydrogen carbonate, then carry out the test again. If there is no red colour it is non-reducing.
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Test for starch
Add iodine dissolved in potassium iodide solution. If starch is present it will turn from browny-orange to blue-black.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Harmful molecules.

Back

Toxins

Card 3

Front

Molecules (proteins or polysaccharides) found on the surface ofcells used to identify them.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

An organelle that contains lysosomal enzymes.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Proteins that bind antigens to form an antigen-antibody complex. Made up of two short polypeptide chains joined to two heavy chains.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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