Biology unit 7

  • Created by: sara domi
  • Created on: 12-06-13 16:38
What are the components of blood?
White blood cells, red blood cells, plasma and platelets
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What is the job of red blood cells and what do they look like?
They transport oxygen from the lungs to the body. They don't have a nucleus and are packed full of haemoglobin, have a biconcave shape to give them a large surface area.
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What is plasma?
a yellowy liquid that carries nutrients such as glucose, antibodies and waste such as carbon dioxide and urea.
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What do white blood cells do?
they fight infection by protecting the body from the attack of microorganisms
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What are platelets?
small fragments of cells that help blood to clot at the site of a wound.
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what is a double circulatory system?
two circuits joined together, the first one pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs to take oxygen in and the second one pumps oxygenated blood around the body.
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what does the right atrium do?
receives deoxygenated blood from the body through the vena cava
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what does the right ventricle do?
pumps the deoxygenated blood to the lungs through the pulmonary artery
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what does the left atrium do?
receives oxygenated blood from the lungs through the pulmonary vein
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what does the left ventricle do?
pumps the oxygenated blood around the the whole body through the aorta
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what do valves in the heart do?
they prevent the backflow of blood
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why is the left ventricle wall thicker than the right?
because the left ventricle has to pump blood around all the body whereas the right atrium only pumps blood to the lungs.
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how is tissue fluid formed?
when blood flows through the capillaries molecules such as oxygen, 0water and glucose are forced out and surround the cells, forming the tissue fluid
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what happens to the nutrients in the tissue fluid?
they diffuse out of the tissue fluid and into the cells, where respiration takes place
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what happens to the waste products in the cells
waste such as carbon dioxide and urea diffuse out of the cells, into the tissue fluid and then into the capillaries
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what is the job of the skeleton?
to support the body, allow movement and protect vital organs
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what is the correct name for the skull, collar bone, thigh and knee?
skull- cranium, collar bone- clavicle, thigh- femur, knee- patella
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what is the job of ligaments?
ligaments attach bone to bone at a joint, they have a high tensile strength and they are slightly elastic to stabalise the joint but allow movement
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what is the job of cartilage?
the ends of bones are covered with cartilage to reduce friction between bones and act as a shock absorber
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what does synovial fluid do?
synovial membranes at a joint release synovial fluid which lubricates the joint, allowing them to move more easily by reducing friction
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what do tendons do?
they attach muscle to bone
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what is an antagonistic pair?
two muscles at a bone that oppose each other to make the bone move. when one muscle in the pair contracts the joint moves in one direction, when the other muscle contracts it moves in the opposite direction
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what sort of background information do fitness practitioners need?
any health problems, current medication, any previous fitness treatments, family medical history, physical activity and lifestyle factors e.g smoking excessive drinking
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why might BMI not be an accurate indicator of fitness?
if you're fit and muscular your BMI might be outside the normal range because muscle is more dense than fat
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what other indicators of fitness apart from BMI are there?
your proportion of body fat (percentage of your body mass that's made up of fat) and monitoring your fitness during an exercise regime to see if you are improving.
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what does accuracy and repeatability mean?
accuracy means the results should be as close to whats actually happening as possible and repeatability means the procedure should give reliable results, so if it was repeated you'd get the same results
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what are some common injuries caused by excessive exercise?
sprains- damage to a ligament, dislocations- a joint comes out of its socket, torn ligaments and torn tendons
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what are the symptoms of a sprain and what method might be used to treat it?
symptoms are pain and swelling in the injured area. the RICE method can be used to treat it; rest, ice, compression, elevation
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what is homeostasis?
it is maintaining a constant internal environment by balancing the inputs and outputs of your body
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what happens in a negative feedback mechanism?
temperature receptors detect that core body temperature is too high/low, the hypothalamus acts as a processing centre it receives effectors produce a reponse e.g sweat glands/ muscles contract rapidly
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what is vasodilation and vasoconstriction?
when you are too hot blood vessels close to the skins surface get bigger, meaning more blood gets to the surface of the skin- vasodilation. when you are too cold the blood vessels close to the skins surface get smaller- vasoconstriction
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what hormone does the pancreas release and what does it do?
releases insulin to control blood sugar level by removing sugar from the blood
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what is the difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes and how are they treated?
type 1- pancreas stops producing insulin, insulin has to be injected at mealtimes type 2- develops later in life, body doesn't respond or make enough insulin, eat controlled diet and exercise regularly
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why are microorganisms useful for making products on an industrial scale?
they reproduce rapidly, have plasmids (easily genetically modified) simple biochemistry, no ethical concerns and can make complex molecules
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what are some products made through the use of microorganisms?
antibiotics, food from fungi, enzymes for making food and washing powder and biofuels
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what are the stages of genetic modification?
the gene is isolated and replicated, each gene is joined to a vector, vectors containing the gene are transferred into new cells and then the modified cells are selected
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what type of cell is DNA taken from for genetic testing?
white blood cells
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what is a gene probe?
a strand of bases that's complementary to the faulty gene you are looking for
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how do gene probes locate a specific gene?
the probe is mixed with DNA and if the bases lock together the gene you are looking for is present and the fluorescent chemical marker is used to locate where the gene probe is
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how the gene probe is used?
a gene probe is produced with a chemical marker attached, a DNA sample is taken, the probe is mixed with the DNA, the gene probe sticks to the gene, the chemical marker is located on the DNA
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what is biomedical engineering?
it uses engineering technologies to improve human health e.g faulty heart valves can be replaced and pacemakers can replace faulty heart cells
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what is a way in which stem cells can treat illnesses?
leukemia can be treated by using the stem cells in a transplants bone marrow to replace the faulty bone marrow
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what is a perfect closed loop system?
all the outputs from processes or stores within the system are recycled, they are used as inputs to other processes or stores in the system
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why are ecosystems a type of closed loop system?
most of the waste produced isn't lost, its recycled as food or reactants for other organisms in the system
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why do some organisms produce lots of reproductive structures?
most of the reproductive structures will not grow into adult organisms
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what is soil erosion?
when soil is lost from an ecosystem e.g by being washed or blown away
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what is a stable ecosystem?
this is when all the outputs are balanced by gains. for example in a rainforest a lot of water is lost when it flows out of rivers but this output is balanced by the gain of water from heavy rainfall
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what is a linear system?
linear systems are a type of 'take make dump' system, where waste products can build to levels where they can become toxic to humans and wildlife
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what is bioaccumulation?
the build up of chemicals in organisms as the chemicals travel through the food chain
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what is eutrophication?
nitrates from fertilizers washed into rivers, promoting algae growth. algae grow at the surface of the water which prevents plants below from photosynthesising. the organisms die and decompose them, using up oxygen. this means organisms like fish die
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what is sustainability?
meeting the needs to today's population without harming the environment so future generations can still meet their own needs
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What is the job of red blood cells and what do they look like?


They transport oxygen from the lungs to the body. They don't have a nucleus and are packed full of haemoglobin, have a biconcave shape to give them a large surface area.

Card 3


What is plasma?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What do white blood cells do?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What are platelets?


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