Biology unit 7

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: sara domi
  • Created on: 12-06-13 16:38
What are the components of blood?
White blood cells, red blood cells, plasma and platelets
1 of 51
What is the job of red blood cells and what do they look like?
They transport oxygen from the lungs to the body. They don't have a nucleus and are packed full of haemoglobin, have a biconcave shape to give them a large surface area.
2 of 51
What is plasma?
a yellowy liquid that carries nutrients such as glucose, antibodies and waste such as carbon dioxide and urea.
3 of 51
What do white blood cells do?
they fight infection by protecting the body from the attack of microorganisms
4 of 51
What are platelets?
small fragments of cells that help blood to clot at the site of a wound.
5 of 51
what is a double circulatory system?
two circuits joined together, the first one pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs to take oxygen in and the second one pumps oxygenated blood around the body.
6 of 51
what does the right atrium do?
receives deoxygenated blood from the body through the vena cava
7 of 51
what does the right ventricle do?
pumps the deoxygenated blood to the lungs through the pulmonary artery
8 of 51
what does the left atrium do?
receives oxygenated blood from the lungs through the pulmonary vein
9 of 51
what does the left ventricle do?
pumps the oxygenated blood around the the whole body through the aorta
10 of 51
what do valves in the heart do?
they prevent the backflow of blood
11 of 51
why is the left ventricle wall thicker than the right?
because the left ventricle has to pump blood around all the body whereas the right atrium only pumps blood to the lungs.
12 of 51
how is tissue fluid formed?
when blood flows through the capillaries molecules such as oxygen, 0water and glucose are forced out and surround the cells, forming the tissue fluid
13 of 51
what happens to the nutrients in the tissue fluid?
they diffuse out of the tissue fluid and into the cells, where respiration takes place
14 of 51
what happens to the waste products in the cells
waste such as carbon dioxide and urea diffuse out of the cells, into the tissue fluid and then into the capillaries
15 of 51
what is the job of the skeleton?
to support the body, allow movement and protect vital organs
16 of 51
what is the correct name for the skull, collar bone, thigh and knee?
skull- cranium, collar bone- clavicle, thigh- femur, knee- patella
17 of 51
what is the job of ligaments?
ligaments attach bone to bone at a joint, they have a high tensile strength and they are slightly elastic to stabalise the joint but allow movement
18 of 51
what is the job of cartilage?
the ends of bones are covered with cartilage to reduce friction between bones and act as a shock absorber
19 of 51
what does synovial fluid do?
synovial membranes at a joint release synovial fluid which lubricates the joint, allowing them to move more easily by reducing friction
20 of 51
what do tendons do?
they attach muscle to bone
21 of 51
what is an antagonistic pair?
two muscles at a bone that oppose each other to make the bone move. when one muscle in the pair contracts the joint moves in one direction, when the other muscle contracts it moves in the opposite direction
22 of 51
what sort of background information do fitness practitioners need?
any health problems, current medication, any previous fitness treatments, family medical history, physical activity and lifestyle factors e.g smoking excessive drinking
23 of 51
why might BMI not be an accurate indicator of fitness?
if you're fit and muscular your BMI might be outside the normal range because muscle is more dense than fat
24 of 51
what other indicators of fitness apart from BMI are there?
your proportion of body fat (percentage of your body mass that's made up of fat) and monitoring your fitness during an exercise regime to see if you are improving.
25 of 51
what does accuracy and repeatability mean?
accuracy means the results should be as close to whats actually happening as possible and repeatability means the procedure should give reliable results, so if it was repeated you'd get the same results
26 of 51
what are some common injuries caused by excessive exercise?
sprains- damage to a ligament, dislocations- a joint comes out of its socket, torn ligaments and torn tendons
27 of 51
what are the symptoms of a sprain and what method might be used to treat it?
symptoms are pain and swelling in the injured area. the RICE method can be used to treat it; rest, ice, compression, elevation
28 of 51
what is homeostasis?
it is maintaining a constant internal environment by balancing the inputs and outputs of your body
29 of 51
what happens in a negative feedback mechanism?
temperature receptors detect that core body temperature is too high/low, the hypothalamus acts as a processing centre it receives effectors produce a reponse e.g sweat glands/ muscles contract rapidly
30 of 51
what is vasodilation and vasoconstriction?
when you are too hot blood vessels close to the skins surface get bigger, meaning more blood gets to the surface of the skin- vasodilation. when you are too cold the blood vessels close to the skins surface get smaller- vasoconstriction
31 of 51
what hormone does the pancreas release and what does it do?
releases insulin to control blood sugar level by removing sugar from the blood
32 of 51
what is the difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes and how are they treated?
type 1- pancreas stops producing insulin, insulin has to be injected at mealtimes type 2- develops later in life, body doesn't respond or make enough insulin, eat controlled diet and exercise regularly
33 of 51
why are microorganisms useful for making products on an industrial scale?
they reproduce rapidly, have plasmids (easily genetically modified) simple biochemistry, no ethical concerns and can make complex molecules
34 of 51
what are some products made through the use of microorganisms?
antibiotics, food from fungi, enzymes for making food and washing powder and biofuels
35 of 51
what are the stages of genetic modification?
the gene is isolated and replicated, each gene is joined to a vector, vectors containing the gene are transferred into new cells and then the modified cells are selected
36 of 51
what type of cell is DNA taken from for genetic testing?
white blood cells
37 of 51
what is a gene probe?
a strand of bases that's complementary to the faulty gene you are looking for
38 of 51
how do gene probes locate a specific gene?
the probe is mixed with DNA and if the bases lock together the gene you are looking for is present and the fluorescent chemical marker is used to locate where the gene probe is
39 of 51
how the gene probe is used?
a gene probe is produced with a chemical marker attached, a DNA sample is taken, the probe is mixed with the DNA, the gene probe sticks to the gene, the chemical marker is located on the DNA
40 of 51
what is biomedical engineering?
it uses engineering technologies to improve human health e.g faulty heart valves can be replaced and pacemakers can replace faulty heart cells
41 of 51
what is a way in which stem cells can treat illnesses?
leukemia can be treated by using the stem cells in a transplants bone marrow to replace the faulty bone marrow
42 of 51
what is a perfect closed loop system?
all the outputs from processes or stores within the system are recycled, they are used as inputs to other processes or stores in the system
43 of 51
why are ecosystems a type of closed loop system?
most of the waste produced isn't lost, its recycled as food or reactants for other organisms in the system
44 of 51
why do some organisms produce lots of reproductive structures?
most of the reproductive structures will not grow into adult organisms
45 of 51
what is soil erosion?
when soil is lost from an ecosystem e.g by being washed or blown away
46 of 51
what is a stable ecosystem?
this is when all the outputs are balanced by gains. for example in a rainforest a lot of water is lost when it flows out of rivers but this output is balanced by the gain of water from heavy rainfall
47 of 51
what is a linear system?
linear systems are a type of 'take make dump' system, where waste products can build to levels where they can become toxic to humans and wildlife
48 of 51
what is bioaccumulation?
the build up of chemicals in organisms as the chemicals travel through the food chain
49 of 51
what is eutrophication?
nitrates from fertilizers washed into rivers, promoting algae growth. algae grow at the surface of the water which prevents plants below from photosynthesising. the organisms die and decompose them, using up oxygen. this means organisms like fish die
50 of 51
what is sustainability?
meeting the needs to today's population without harming the environment so future generations can still meet their own needs
51 of 51

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is the job of red blood cells and what do they look like?

Back

They transport oxygen from the lungs to the body. They don't have a nucleus and are packed full of haemoglobin, have a biconcave shape to give them a large surface area.

Card 3

Front

What is plasma?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What do white blood cells do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are platelets?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Science resources:

See all Science resources »See all Biology resources »