Biology unit 3 topic 3

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Homeostasis
controlling the internal conditions in the body. Temperature, blood glucose, water, ion content and levels of waste products (CO2 and urea) must be controlled. Urea is produced in the liver from the breakdown of amino acids
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Kidneys
A healthy kidney produces urine by: first filtering the blood, then reabsorbing the sugars, dissolved ions needed by the body, as much water as body needs and releasing urea and excess ions and water in urine.
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Dialysis
Blood flows through partially permeable membranes,the dialysis fluid contains the same concentration of useful substances patient’s blood does.The useful substances doesn’t diffuse out of blood but the urea does.Must be carried out at reg intervals
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Kidney transplants
new kidney must be good ‘tissue match’ to prevent rejection. The recipient’s antibodies may attack the antigens on donor organ as they foreign. Following transplant recipient must take immunosuppressant drugs for rest of life.
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Controlling body temperature
body temp must be kept at 37⁰C so enzymes work efficiently. Body temp is monitored + controlled by thermoregulatory centre in brain- has receptors that detect temp of blood flowing through brain.
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If core temp increases
Blood vessels near skin surface dilate allowing more blood to flow through capillaries, energy transferred by radiation so cools. Sweats, water evaporates from skins surface .
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If core temp falls
Blood vessels near skin surface constrict + less blood flows through skin capillaries, less energy radiated. Shiver, muscles contract quickly, requires respiration, energy released warms blood.
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Controlling blood glucose
pancreas monitors + controls levels of glucose in the blood, if too much pancreas produces hormone-insulin. This causes liver to convert excess glucose into glycogen for storage.
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Type 1 diabetes
If too little insulin produced, blood glucose levels may get too high. This is called type 1 diabetes, can be controlled by injections of insulin and careful attention to diet and levels of exercise.
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Insulin + glucagon
Causes blood glucose levels to fall, if level too low, receptors in pancreas detect & releases glucagon. Glucagon causes glycogen in liver to convert back to glucose which is released back into blood.
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Treating diabetes
Type 1 diabetes have to inject before meals every day of their life. Some use pumps attached to body. Scientist trying new methods: pancreas transplants, stem cells, genetically engineering pancreas cells.
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Card 2

Front

A healthy kidney produces urine by: first filtering the blood, then reabsorbing the sugars, dissolved ions needed by the body, as much water as body needs and releasing urea and excess ions and water in urine.

Back

Kidneys

Card 3

Front

Blood flows through partially permeable membranes,the dialysis fluid contains the same concentration of useful substances patient’s blood does.The useful substances doesn’t diffuse out of blood but the urea does.Must be carried out at reg intervals

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

new kidney must be good ‘tissue match’ to prevent rejection. The recipient’s antibodies may attack the antigens on donor organ as they foreign. Following transplant recipient must take immunosuppressant drugs for rest of life.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

body temp must be kept at 37⁰C so enzymes work efficiently. Body temp is monitored + controlled by thermoregulatory centre in brain- has receptors that detect temp of blood flowing through brain.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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