Biology Unit 2- Classification

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  • Created by: FireDwarf
  • Created on: 02-03-14 15:56
What is Classification?
The organisation of diffrent living organisims into groups.
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What is taxonomy?
The theory and practice of biological classification into a hierarchical order.
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What is the hierarchical system?
Places simular organisims closley together, while organisims not related further apart. We eep dividing the groups down to smaller sizes as they get closer and closer related.
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Order of the hierarchary system?
Kingdom, Phylum, class, order, family, genus, species.
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What is a species? What is a genus/genera?
Group of simular organisims which can breed freely to produce fertile offspring. Group of species closley related
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Family? Order?
Grouping of simular genera, related famillies.
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Class? Phylum? Kingdom?
Grouping of simular orders, largest group of classes which share some common features. Largest taxonomic grouping.
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What is the name given to the system for naming species?
Binomial system.
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What are the languages? What is the first name, what is the second?
Latin/Greek. First is the generic name, identifying the genus of species. The second is the specific name, identifying the species.
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Rules?
Names are underlined or given in italic to highlight scientifc names. First letter of generic is upper case but specific is lower case. S name not known, give it as sp.
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Two main forms of classification?
Artifical classification- dividing organims based upon diffrences which are useful at the time (eg: size, colour). Natural classification- evolutionary relationship, shared features from ancestors.
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What is phylogeny? What does it show?
The evolutionary relationship between organisims. The evolutionary branch that lead up to that organisim.
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How to show it?
Tree like diagram called a phylogenic tree. Oldest species goes at the base while recent branch off.
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Why do we look at the DNA of an organisim to see if their related?
DNA codes for polypeptides which compose protiens. Protiens determine the features of an organisim as well as molecules such as enzymes.
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what would we expect to see when we compared simular organisims DNA base sequences?
if we picked a gene which both organisims shared, their base sequences would be very simular due to them both coming from an shared ancestor which their DNA is taken from.
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Name 2 methods of comparing simularities in DNA? Why is the 2nd better then the 1st?
Base sequence comparment of a simular gene & DNA hybridisation. One form of it only looks at some of the genes, the second looks at the entire DNA molecule.
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What is DNA hybridisation dependant upon?
Dependant upon the fact that when a DNA molecule is heated, its hydrogen bonds break and the two strands become seperate.
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What happens when it cools?
The complemtory bases on each strand recombine and form the H bonds agian. Therefore, given time, the DNA molecule will reform.
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So how does this work?
DNA from two species is extracted. One DNA is labeled and the other not. They are then mixed and heated to break H bonds. Mixture cools to allow strand to recombine.
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What will happen when they recombine?
Some of tge double strands that reform will be made up on one strand from each species (hybrid). These hybrids are seperated out next. At each temperture stage the degree to which the strands are still linked together is measured.
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If they are more closley related, there will be more H bonds. It will therefore take a higher temperture to break them together in the hybrid strand. Higher temperture, more closley related.
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How do we use comparrision of amino acids in protiens?
Take the same protien from two organisms. Determine base sequence. Count number of simularities. Higher number, more closley related.
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How do we compare diffrent protiens for being closley related via immuniology?
Antibodies of one species will respond to specific antigens on protiens.Greater the number of simular antigens, more precipitate formed.
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How to complete it?
Extract protien from species A and inject into species B. Species B will produce antibodies specific to that protien. Extract the serum from species B and add to blood of species C. We will see a precipitate form using this specific protien.
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What protien are we using? What two specieis are we testing?
albumin & Species A and C, B is being used simply to create the antibodies.
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Why is courtship behaviour neccessary? (4 REASONS)
So that they can reconise members of their own species (to ensure mating only occurs between members of the own, as their the only ones gonna be fertile). Identify a mate capable of breeding (sexually mature), form a pair bond successful mate & raise
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synchronise mating (maximum probability of sperm and egg meeting).
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How does it work?
Typically males give out a action which acts as a stimulus for the female. They then have their own specific action towards it. This then acts as a stimulus for the male to complete an action. continues on.
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What is this called?
Stimulus-responce chain.
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The longer the sequence goes on for?
The more likely it is that they will mate. (Yuck).
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Card 2

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What is taxonomy?

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The theory and practice of biological classification into a hierarchical order.

Card 3

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What is the hierarchical system?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

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Order of the hierarchary system?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is a species? What is a genus/genera?

Back

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