Biology Unit 2a

Cells - Nucleus (Plant, Animal + Yeast)
Contains genetic material that controls the activities of the cell.
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Cells - Cytoplasm (Plant, Animal, Yeast + Bacterial)
Gel-like substance where most of the chemical reactions happen. It contains enzymes that control these chemical reactions
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Cells - Cell Membrane (Plant, Animal, Yeast + Bacterial)
holds the cell together and controls what goes in and out
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Cells - Mitochondria (Plant, Animal, Yeast + Bacterial)
These are where most of the reactions for respiration take place. Respiration releases energy that the cell needs to work.
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Cells - Ribosomes (Plant, Animal, Yeast + Bacterial)
These are where proteins are made in the cell
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Cells - Cell Wall (Plant, Yeast + Bacterial)
Made of cellulose and support the cell and strengthens it
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Cells - Permanent Vacuole (PLANT ONLY)
Contains cell sap, a weak solution of sugar and salts
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Cells - Chloroplasts (PLANT ONLY)
These are where photosynthesis occurs, which makes food for the plant. They contain a green substance called chlorophyll.
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Cells - Bacterial Cells
No nucleus. Single-celled microorganism. A bacterial cell has cytoplasm and a cell membrane surrounded by a cell wall. The genetic material floats in the cytoplasm because bacterial cells don't have a nucleus
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Cells - Yeast Cells
Yeast is a single-celled organism. Yeast is a microorganism. A yeast cell has a nucleus, cytoplasm and a cell membrane surrounded by a cell wall
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Specialised Cells - Palisade Cell
The function is to absorb light for photosynthesis and is packed with chloroplasts which contain the pigment chlorophyll
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Specialised Cells - Red blood cells
Absorbs oxygen and transports it round the body. Contains no nucleus so more haemoglobin can be packed in. Has a biconcave shape so it is flexible to squeeze through small capillaries.
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Specialised Cells - Cilliated cells in oviduct
Moves the egg towards the uterus. Has cilia on the surface which beat regularly to move the egg down the oviduct. Contains mitochondria which provide the energy needed to move the cilia.
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Specialised Cells - Nerve cell (motor neurone)
Transmits nerve impulses. Contains fibres (dendrites) which connect to other neurones. The axon is surrounded by the myelin sheath which insulates it and speeds up the transmission of the never impulse
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Specialised Cells - Root hair cell
Absorbs water and mineral salts from the soil. Has a large surgace area which enables the cell to absorb more water from the soil
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Specialised Cells - Sperm cell
Fertilises the female gamete (egg). Has a long tail to swim to the egg. The mid piece is packed with mitochondria to provide energy for movement.
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Specialised Cells - Muscle cell
Contracts to provide muscle movement. Contains mitochondria which provide the energy for contraction.
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Diffusion is the spreading out of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. An example of this would be the spreading of oil across the surface of the ocean.
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Body Organs - Mouth
Digestion starts here. Once you start chewing and breaking the food down into pieces small enough to be digested. Produces amylase.
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Body Organs - Pharynx
The pharynx is the portion of the digestive tract that recieves the food from the mouth. Pharynx is where swallowing takes place.
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Body Organs - Esophagus
Esophagus carries food to stomach. Food then enters the esophagus. Esophagus = muscular tube. Food is pushed through the esophagus + into the stomach by means of a series of contractions called peristalsis.
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Body Organs - Stomach
Hollow rogan that holds food whilst being mixed with enzymes that break down food. Changed into paste -> small intestine. Strong acid and protease enzymes are produced.
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Body Organs - Liver
Process the blood containing the nutrients absorbed from the small intestine. Bile made in the liver is the body's chemical "factory". It takes raw materials absorbed by the intestine and makes all the various chemicals the body needs to function.
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Body Organs - Gall bladder
Storage sac for excess bile. Bile in liver travels to small intestine via the bile ducts. Carries waste from the liver that cannot go through the kidneys. Absorbs foods and fats.
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Body Organs - Pancreas
Chief factory for digestive enzymes. Secreted into the first segment of small intestine. Break down protein fats + carbohydrates alsmo makes insulin secreting it directly into the bloodstream. Insulin is the chief hormone for metabolizing sugar.
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Body Organs - Small intestine
22ft long muscular tube breaks down food using enzymes released by the pancres + bile from the liver. 1st part - largely responsible for continuous breaking down process. 2nd + 3rd part - responsible for absorption of nutrients.
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Body Organs - Large intestine
6ft long muscular tube connects small intestine to rectum. Reposible for producing waste.
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Body Organs - Rectum
8inch chamer connects the colon to the anus. Recieves stool from the large intestine. Holds stool til evacuation.
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Body Organs - Anus
Last part of digestive tract. 2 inch long canal consisting of the pelvic floor muscles + 2 anal sphincters. Muscles that line the pelvis + 2 other muscles called anal sphincters.
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Plant Structure - Waxy Cuticle
Thin layer of waxy material that reduces water loss by evaporation. Acts as a barrier to disease causing organisms. E.G. Bacteria and fungi
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Plant Structure - Upper Epidermis
Have few chloroplasts and are mainly transparent to let light through to the palisade cells
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Plant Structure - Palisade Cells
The shape of the cells is rectangular, and tehy are closely packed. This allows them to catch the most sunlight. These cells contain the most chloroplasts and their jkjob is to carry out most of the photosynthesis in the leaf
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Plant Structure - Spongy Mesophyll
These cells have a more rounded shape and there are air gaps between them. They still contain lots of chloroplasts and carry out photosynthesis. The air gaps mean that carbon dioxide can enter the leaf + oxygen can leave the leaf easily by difussion
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Plant Structure - Vein
The vein contains the xylem and the phloem tissue. These supply water and minerals to the cells that need them and the products of photosynthesis. E.G. glucose are carried away to where they are needed
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Plant Structure - Guard Cell
These control the opening and closing of the stomata they do this by changing their water content. When full the stomata open, when empty they close.
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Plant Structure - Stomata
These are small holes that allow gas and water vapour to enter and exit the leaf. In dry conditions stomata close to prevent water loss when there is plenty of water they open to speed up photosynthesis.
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Body Organs - Respiratory system
Lungs, Diaphragm, Nose
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Body Organs - Circulatory system
Veins, Arteries, Capillaries, Heart
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Body Organs - Excretory system
Bladder, Kidney
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Body Organs - Endocrine System
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Body Organs - Reproductive system
Ovaries, Testes, Uterus
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Body Organs - Sensory system
skin, brain, ears, neurones, nose, eyes
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Body Organs - Digestive system
Small + large intestines, Stomach
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Body Organs - Musculoskeletal
Gluteus maximus, tibie, fibula, skin, numerous, biceps, spine
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Gel-like substance where most of the chemical reactions happen. It contains enzymes that control these chemical reactions


Cells - Cytoplasm (Plant, Animal, Yeast + Bacterial)

Card 3


holds the cell together and controls what goes in and out


Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4


These are where most of the reactions for respiration take place. Respiration releases energy that the cell needs to work.


Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5


These are where proteins are made in the cell


Preview of the back of card 5
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