Biology Unit 2

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  • Created by: jenni2906
  • Created on: 09-05-15 17:19
Features of Red Blood Cells?
Big surface area for absorbing oxygen. Haemoglobin absorbs oxygen.
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What is a catalyst?
Substance that increases the speed of a reaction but doesn't get used up.
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What is Respiration?
The process of releasing energy from glucose which goes on in every cell.
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Why is there a change in heart rate during exercise?
More oxygen to muscles and more glucose to muscles. Faster removal of carbon dioxide and faster removal of latic acid.
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What is the breakdown of carbohydrase?
Starch - sugar
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What are the differences between anaerobic and aerobic respiration?
Oxygen is used in aerobic. More energy from aerobic. CO2 + H2O products of aerobic.
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What does yeast make?
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Isomerase is immobilised in a column of beads but the product is not contaminated with enzyme. Why?
Enzyme can be reused.
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What does more sunlight mean for plants?
More glucose so more growth.
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What can stem cells be used for?
To differentiate into nerve cells.
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What are meiosis and mitosis?
Mitosis is one cell division. Meiosis is two cell division.
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What are the differences between mitosis and meiosis?
Cells produced by mitosis have two sets of chromosomes but cells produced by meiosis have one set of chromosomes.
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Where does aerobic respiration happen?
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What are fossils?
Remains of organism that show changes over time.
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Why did people reject theories of how life started?
Lack of valid evidence of how life started. Early organisms destroyed by geological action.
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How are different species formed?
Isolation by geographical barrier which causes variation. Different environmental conditions, so natural selection happens, differences lead to inability to interbreed.
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What are the xylem and phloem used for?
Transport substances around the plant.
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Features of a plant cell?
Cell wall on outside, then cell membrane, genes, cytoplasm.
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What is diffusion?
Spreading out of particles from high to low concentration.
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How does CO2 affect photosynthesis?
As CO2 increases, so does rate of photosynthesis. Levels off because CO2 is the raw material converted to organic substance.
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How does temperature affect photosynthesis?
As temperature increases so does the rate of photosynthesis, then it decreases. Rise in temperature increases the rate of chemical reactions.
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How can you keep a temperature constant?
With a water bath.
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Features of a plant?
Waxy cuticle reduces water loss. Epidermis - no chloroplasts so allows light to pentrate. Stomata allows CO2 in. Palisade - many chloroplasts to trap light. Spongy air spaces for rapid movement of gases.
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What do ribosomes do?
Make proteins using amino acids. Mitochondria provide the energy for the process.
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Difference between a plant and bacteria cell?
Plant cell has nucleus. Bacteria cell too small to contain mitochondria.
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What does lipase do?
Produces fatty acid and lowers pH.
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What does bile do?
Provides suitable pH for enzyme action so the rate of reaction increases.
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What is the mechanical breakdown of food in mouth?
Fats to fatty acids by lipase produced in pancreas and small intestine. Fat digestion occurs in small intestine. Bile produced by the liver neutralises stomach acid and produces alkaline conditions in intestine. Products absorbed by small intestine.
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How many chromosomes in nucleus of human?
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How many chromosomes in gametes?
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What is DNA replication?
Where the chromosome becomes 2.
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What happens when chromosome becomes 2 strands?
One copy of each chromosome to each offspring cell. Each set of
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What does meiosis create?
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What is used in respiration?
More glycogen is used in respiration. More energy released and used for movement.
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What is a dominant allele?
Allele expressed even when different allele present.
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What is a species?
Organisms that can breed together successfully.
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What is sex?
New variety fertilisation - mixing of genetic information. One copy of each allele from each parent.
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What is an allele?
Alternative forms of the same gene.
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What is a recessive allele?
Only expressed if 2 copies inherited.
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Card 2


What is a catalyst?


Substance that increases the speed of a reaction but doesn't get used up.

Card 3


What is Respiration?


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Card 4


Why is there a change in heart rate during exercise?


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Card 5


What is the breakdown of carbohydrase?


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