Biology unit 2

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Typical cell structure
nucleus, cytoplasm where many chemical reactions take place, cell membrane-controls the substances moving in and out of cell, mitochondria- energy released during aerobic respiration, ribosomes- where proteinsynthesis takes place
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Plant and algal cells (algae are simple aquatic organisms with many similar features to plant cells)
rigid cell wall made of cellulose for support, chloroplasts (containing chlorophyll) for photosynthesis, permanent vacuole containing cell sap
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Bacteria and yeast
bacteria have a cell membrane, cell wall and cytoplasm. Yeast is a single celled organism made up of a nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane and a cell wall
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Specialised cells
- if a cell has: lots of mitochondria- must need lots of energy e.g-muscle cell, many ribosomes- making lots of protein e.g-gland cells which produce enzymes, a tail- able to move, many chloroplasts- will be photosynthesising e.g mesophyll cells
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Diffusion
The net movement into or out of cells from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. The difference in concentration between two areas is the concentration gradient, the larger the concentration gradient, the faster the diffusion
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Tissues - During development of organism, cells differentiate. Different cells have different functions, a tissue is a group of cells with similar structure and function
Animal:muscle tissue-contracts cause movement,glandular tissue-produces enzymes,hormones,epithelial tissue-covers parts of the body.Plant:epidermal tissue-covers plant,mesophyll tissue-can photosynthesise,xylem&phloem-transport substance around plant
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Organs
made of tissues, stomach made of:muscular tissue-churns stomach contents, glandular tissue-produce digestive juices, epithelial tissue- covers inside and outside of stomach. Groups of organs form organ systems e.g-digestive system
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Digestive system
Mouth- chews food, salivary gland-produces saliva containing amylase, gullet-muscular tube contracts push food down to stomach, stomach-muscular organ churns up food contains glandular tissue that produces acid (kills microorganisms) and protease
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pancreas-glandular tissue that produces: protease, amylase &lipase, liver- produces bile, gall bladder- stores&secretes bile via bile duct
small intestine-made up of glandular and muscular tissue produces lipase,amylase&protease more digestion happening+absorbtion of smaller soluble food molecules (sugars, amino acids),large intestine-water absorbed from undigested food creating faeces
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Enzymes + bile
Amylase-breaks down carbohydrates to sugars,protease- proteins to amino acids, Lipase- from fats to fatty acids+glycerol, Bile- neutralises food leaving stomach + emulsifies fats into smaller globules increasing surface area for lipase to work
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Plant and algal cells (algae are simple aquatic organisms with many similar features to plant cells)

Back

rigid cell wall made of cellulose for support, chloroplasts (containing chlorophyll) for photosynthesis, permanent vacuole containing cell sap

Card 3

Front

Bacteria and yeast

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Specialised cells

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Diffusion

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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