Biology Unit 2.1

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  • Created by: ChloeB25
  • Created on: 06-02-14 20:29
What is a gene?
A length of DNA that codes for a polypeptide
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What is transcription?
The creation of a single-stranded mRNA copy of the DNA coding strand
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What is translation?
The assembly of polypeptides (proteins) at ribosomes
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What is a mutation?
A change in the amount of, or arrangement of, the genetic material in a cell
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What is an allele
An alternative version of a gene
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What is an operon?
A length of DNA composed of structural genes (code for proteins) and control sites (operator and promotore region).
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What is a repressor protein?
Binds to the operator region, and RNA polymerase binds to the promoter region to transcribe structural genes
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What is a homebox gene?
A gene that controls the development of the body plan of organisms, including polarity and positioning of organs
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What is apoptosis?
Programmed cell death
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What is phagocytosis?
The endocytosis of large solid molecules into a cell
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What is meiosis?
A reduction division. Resulting daughter cells have half the original number of chromosomes. They are haploid and used in sexual reproduction
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What is a locus?
The position of a gene on a chromosome
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What is crossing over?
When lengths of DNA are swapped from one chromatid to another
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What are maternal chromosomes?
Chromosomes contributed by the egg
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What are paternal chromosomes?
Chromosomes contributed by the sperm
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What is codominant?
Both alleles contribute to the phenotype
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What is epistasis?
The interaction of different gene loci so that one gene locus masks or supresses the expression of another gene locus
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What is the chi-squared test?
A statistical test to find out if the difference between observed categorical data and expected data is small enough to be due to chance
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What is a selection pressure?
An environmental factor that confers greater chances of survival to reproductive age on some members of the population
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What is the biological species concept?
A group of similar organisms that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring
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What is the phylogenetic species concept?
A group of organisms that have similar morphology, physiology, embryology and behaviour, and occupy the same ecological niche
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What is a monophyletic group?
A group that includes an ancestral organism and all its descendant species
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What is a paraphyletic group?
A group that includes the most recent ancestor but not all its descendants
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is transcription?

Back

The creation of a single-stranded mRNA copy of the DNA coding strand

Card 3

Front

What is translation?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is a mutation?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is an allele

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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