Biology unit 1, topic 1 - Lifestyle, health and risk

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Explain the importance of water in a transport system
ampheteric (both an acid and base), dipole (has both a positive and negative charge - perfect medium for biochemical reactions), good solvent (able to prevent PH changes inside the cells during chemical reactions + good at transporting substances)
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Distinguish between monosaccharides, disccharides and polysaccharides
monosaccharide = one unit of sugar, disaccharide = two units of sugar joined together with a glycosidic bond through a condensation reaction, polysaccharide = multiple units of sugar
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Distinguish between different types of starch
Starch = amylose (straigh, unbranched polymer (only has (1,4) glycosidic bonds) - spiral shape = more compact + insoluable) + amylopectin (branched polymer ((1,4) and (1,6) glycosidic bonds),can be broken down faster + soluable)
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Describe the polysaccharide glycogen
Carbohydrate energy store found in animals, lots of (1,6) glycosidic bonds - therefore a branched, compact molecule that can be easily and rapidly broken down
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Describe the synthesis of a triglyeride
A condensation reaction, forming ester bonds between a single glycerol molecule and 3 fatty acids
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Describe saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids
Saturated = found in animals, each carbon atom is joined to the next by a single covalent bond, Monounsaturated = (found in plants) one double bond in the carbon chain, Polyunsaturated = (found in plants) more than one double bond
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Describe the features of a mass transport system
A system of vessels (to transport substances), a way to make sure the substances are travelling in the right direction (valves), suitable transport medium (blood), way of maintaining a concentration gradient, way of moving substances quickly (heart)
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Explain the cardiac cycle
Atrial systole (atria contract forcing blood into the ventricles), ventricular systole (contraction of ventricles push blood up into the arteries), diastole (heart relaxes, low pressure in the heart refills chambers with blood from the veins)
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Explain the structure of the arteries
Small lumen (keeps blood under high pressure), thick walls containing smooth muscle and elastic fibers - (branch out to become arterioles - smaller and lower pressure)
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Explain the structure of the veins
Carries deoxygenated blood under low pressure, has thin walls made of smooth muscle and some elastic fibers, contains valves to prevent backflow, larger lumen
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Explain the structure of the capillaries
Very narrow lumen and thin walls (only one cell thick), no elastic fibers or smooth muscle (allows substances to diffuse between blood and tissue)
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How is CO2 transported round the body?
Plasma (CO2 dissolved in plasma), haemoglobin (associated with haemoglobin to form carbaminohaemoglobin), hydrogen carbonate ions, dissolved in the cytoplasm of the red blood cell
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What happens in coagulation (blood clotting)?
serotonin causes the blood vessels to contract, thromboplastin (enzyme) catalyses the conversion of prothrombin (protein) to thrombin (enzyme), this acts on fibrinogen (protein) converting it to fibrin, this forms a mesh of fibers (eg platelets)
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Describe the process leading up to atherosclerosis
high blood pressure causes damage to the endothelium, causing a build up of cholesterol (a scab), reducing the diameter of the lumen, increasing pressure in the vessel, the fragments break away and can build up and block blood vessels
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List risk factors that can effect CVD
genes, age, gender, smoking, weight, exercise, stress, diet
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Describe the different treatments for CVD
Antihyperintensives (reduce high blood pressure), Statins (reduce cholesterol levels by blocking the enzyme that produces cholesterol), anticoagulants (reduce likelihood of blood clotting), platelet inhibitors (prevent platelets from forming clots)
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What are the risks of different treatments for CVD?
Antihyperintensives=blood pressure may become too low (fatigue, fainting, palpitations), statins=skeletal muscle damage, liver damage and reduced absorption of vitamins, anticoagulants and platelet inhibitors=excessive bleeding
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Distinguish between monosaccharides, disccharides and polysaccharides

Back

monosaccharide = one unit of sugar, disaccharide = two units of sugar joined together with a glycosidic bond through a condensation reaction, polysaccharide = multiple units of sugar

Card 3

Front

Distinguish between different types of starch

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Describe the polysaccharide glycogen

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Describe the synthesis of a triglyeride

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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