biology unit 1 section 4

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What does air travel through to get to the alveoli?
Trachea, brochi, bronchioles to alveoli
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What are the main events during inspiration?
Diaphragm and intercostal muscles contract, Diaphragm flattens and rib cage moves up and out, thorax volume increase and air pressure is low inside so air comes in
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What are the main events during expiration?
Diaphragm and intercostal muscles relax, ribs move down and in and diaphragm becomes rounded, throax volume decrease and air rushes out
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Which of the two, inspiration and expiration, requires energy?
inspiration
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Name three ways the alveoli are adapted for gaseous exchange
Large surface area, thin walls for short diffusion pathways and good blood supply
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What is Pulmonary ventilation?
The volume of air taken into the lungs each minute
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How do you work our pulmonary volume?
Pulmonary volume = tidal volume x ventilation rate
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what is tidal volume?
The volume of air taken in on each normal breath
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What is the bacterium responsible for pulmonary tuberculosis?
mycobacterium tuberculosis
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What is a tubercles?
A small lump in the lungs caused by immune system cells surrounding the tuberculosis bacterium
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Why does tuberculosis lower tidal volume?
The infected cells in the tubercles die and this effects the exchange surface
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Name 4 symptoms of tuberculosis
Coughing up blood, chests pains, shortness of breath, fatigue, fever
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What are two conditions where the bacteria would spread easier?
Crowded conditions with poor hygiene
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How is the bacteria transmitted?
When an infected person cough or sneeze, the bacteria in their mucus and saliva enter the atmosphere
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What is Fibrosis?
the formation of scar tissue in the lungs because of exposure to dust and other things.
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What is bad about the scar tissue?
not as elastic as normal tissue so lungs cant expand and hold as much air and its thicker so reduces gas exchange
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What are 4 symptoms of fibrosis?
Shortness of breath, dry cough, chest pains fatigue and increases rate of breathing
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What is asthma?
The airways become irritated and inflamed as a result to an allergen, the muscles contract and produce mucus which reduces air flow
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what are three Symptoms of asthma?
Wheezing, shortness of breath and a tight chest
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What do inhalers do?
Make the bronchioles relax which opens the air way
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What is Emphysema?
inflammation in the lungs from smoking and air pollution which causes phagocytes to come and produce and ezyme which breaks down elastin in the alveoli
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What does a loss of elastin do to the alveoli?
they cant recoil to exspell air as much so air becomes trapped and the wall eventually breaks down
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What are the symptoms of Emphysema?
Wheezing and shortness of breath
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are the main events during inspiration?

Back

Diaphragm and intercostal muscles contract, Diaphragm flattens and rib cage moves up and out, thorax volume increase and air pressure is low inside so air comes in

Card 3

Front

What are the main events during expiration?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Which of the two, inspiration and expiration, requires energy?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Name three ways the alveoli are adapted for gaseous exchange

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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