Biology -Unit 1.

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  • Created by: lou
  • Created on: 23-05-15 15:45
What food groups to do you need for a balanced diet??
Carbohydrates - for energy. Fats - to keep warm and for energy. Protein for growth, cell repair and cell replacement. Fibre - digestive system. Vitamin and Minerals.
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What is your metabolism??
The chemical reaction in your baody that keep you alive.
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What is your metabolic rate??
The speed at which the reactions occur.
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Why are there variations in metabolic rate of differnt people??
People with a higher proption of muscel to fat will have a higher metabolic rate. Physically bigger people need more energy because they have more cells. Men tend to have a higher metabolic rate than women. Exercise boots your metabolic rate.
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Your health is affected by having an unbalnced diet.
People whose diet is badly out of balance are said to be malnourished.
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How are malnourishment and starvation different??
Malnourishment is different from starvation which is not getting enough of any sort of food.
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What can eating to much lead to??
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What is Obesity??
A common disorder in developed countries - being 20% or more over the maxium recommened body mass.
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What is the cause of obesity??
Excess fat ot carbohydrate in the diet. Hormonal problems can lead to obesity, though the usual cause is a bad diet, overeating and a lack of exercise.
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What health problems are related to obesity??
Arthritis. Type 2 diabetes. High blood pressure.Heart disease.
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What health problems can eating too little cause??
Slow growth, fatigue,poor resitance to infection, anorexia, anemia and irrgeual period in women.
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What causes deficiency diseases??
Deficiency diseases are caused by a lack of vitamins or minerals.
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What is scurvy caused by??
A lack of vitamin C.
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Name an herited factor that may affect your metabolic rate.
Underactive thyroid can lower the metabolic rate.
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What must you remember to do when evaluating slimmimg claims??
Check to see if it a scientific report, who it is written by, hiw many people took part and if other studies have found similar results.
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How does a person lose/gain body mass??
A person loses body mass when the energy content of food taken in is less than the amount of energy expended by the body. Exercise increases the amount of energy expended by the body.
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What are pathogens??
Microorganisms that enter the body and cause disease are called pathogens. Pathogens cause infectious diseases.
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What are the two main types of pathogens??
Bacteria and viruses.
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What are Bacteria??
Very small cells which reproduce rapidily inside your body. They make you feel ill by doing two things - damaging your cells, producing toxins.
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What are Viruses??
Not cells. They are tiny. They replicate themselves by invading your cells and amking copies of themselves. The cell will usually burst realsing the new viruses. this cell damage is what makes you feel ill.
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How does the body protect you from disease??
Your skin + hair + mucus stop a lot of microorganisms getting inside your body. Cuts clot.
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How do white blood cells destroy microbes??
Consuming them. Producing antibodies. Producing antitoxins.
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What is vaccination??
Vaccination involves injecting a dead or inactive form of the pathogen into the body. They carry antigens so your white blood cells produce the correct antibodies. So if you contract the diease you rapidly produce the anitbodies before you get ill.
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What do painkillers do??
They reduced pain they dont cure.
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What do antibiotics do??
They kill/ prevent growth of bacteria.
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What don't antibiotics do??
Destroy viruses.
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How does antibiotic resistance occurr??
Bacteria mutate, the mutation can cause them to be resitant to an antibiotic. If you have an injection some of the bacteria may be resitant to the antibiotic. So only the non
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Why is equipment sterilised??
To prevent contamination.
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What temperature must cultures of microoganisims be kept at in the school lab and why??
25 C because otherwise harmful pathogens may grow.
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What is a pandemic??
When a disease spreads across the whole country/ world.
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What is an epidemic??
A wide spread occurrance of an infectious disease in a communtity at a particular time.
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Who was Semmelweis??
A man who recognised the importance of hand-washing in the prevention of spreadinf some infectious diseases. Didnt know about the Louis Pasteur's Germ Theory. Worked on the maternity wards and noticed a paettern between doctor ward and midwives ward.
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Card 2


What is your metabolism??


The chemical reaction in your baody that keep you alive.

Card 3


What is your metabolic rate??


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Card 4


Why are there variations in metabolic rate of differnt people??


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Card 5


Your health is affected by having an unbalnced diet.


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