Biology Unit 1

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Mutation
A random change in DNA which produces new characteristics.
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Adaptation
Features which help an organism survive better in its environment.
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Immunity
The ability to resist infection.
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Vaccination
Injection of a dead or inactive form of a pathogen which stimulates an immune response by the white blood cells.
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Antibiotic
Drug which targets and kills bacteria only.
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Antibiotic Resistance
Mutation in a pathogen which makes it resistant to an antibiotic, e.g. MRSA.
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Malnourished
Having an unbalanced diet. e.g. obesity, anorexic.
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Pathogen
A micro-organism which causes disease.
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Reflex
An automatic, rapid response to a stimulus, mediated by the spinal cord or lower brain.
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Recessive Allele
An allele whose expression is suppressed in the presence of a dominant allele.
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Dominant Allele
An allele that is fully expressed in the phenotype of the hetero-zygote.
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Heterozygous
An individual with two different alleles for a particular gene.
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Homozygous
An individual with both alleles that are the same alleles for a particular gene.
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Punnett Square
A diagram used to show the predicted results of random fertilization in a genetic cross.
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Mendel
Predicted inheritance by genes.
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Synapse
A junction (gap) between neurons where chemicals diffuse across.
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CNS (Central Nervous System)
Includes the brain and spinal cord.
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FSH
Matures the egg.
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LH
Causes egg release (ovulation).
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Oestrogen
Controls the thickening of the uterus lining and inhibits FSH production.
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Progesterone
A steroid hormone that prepares the uterus for pregnancy; the major progestin in mammals.
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Homeostasis
Maintaining internal conditions.
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MRI
Magnetic resonance imaging.
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Gamete
Specialized sex cell produced during respiration.
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46
Number of chromosomes in a nucleus of a human cell.
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Variation
Difference between members of species or population.
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Sexual Reproduction
Reproduction when there is fusion of the genetic information in sex cells called gametes. Gives rise to variation
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Cuttings
Cloning plants (small scale).
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Tissue Culture
Cloning a plant from a small sample of tissue on a medium.
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Embryo Cloning
Splitting cells apart from an embryo before they become specialised, to produce several identical embryos.
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Adult Cell Cloning
Cloning which involves taking the nucleus of an adult (skin) cell and inserting it into an empty egg. an electric shock is then given and the embryo is inserted into a surrogate mother's uterus.
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Jean-Baptiste Lamark
Inheritance of acquired characteristics.
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Charles Darwin
Came up with the theory of Natural Selection.
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Natural Selection
Process by which individuals with inherited characteristics well suited to the environment, reproduce and spread their characteristics.
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Species
Group of organisms that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring.
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Kimgdom
Largest group in the natural classification system.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Features which help an organism survive better in its environment.

Back

Adaptation

Card 3

Front

The ability to resist infection.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Injection of a dead or inactive form of a pathogen which stimulates an immune response by the white blood cells.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Drug which targets and kills bacteria only.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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