What do carbohydrates do?
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What do fats do?
Keep you warm and release energy
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What is protein for?
Growth, cell repair and cell replacement
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What does fibre do?
Keeps everything moving smoothly through your digestive system
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What do vitamins and mineral ions do?
Keeps your skin, bones, blood etc healthy
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What is metabolism?
The chemical reactions in the body that keep you alive
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What does the term 'metabolic rate' mean?
The speed at which the chemical reactions in your body occur
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Why do people who are physically bigger have a higher metabolic rate than smaller people?
Because they need more energy
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Why do men tend to have a higher metabolic rate than women?
Because they are slightly bigger and have a larger proportion of muscle
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What factors affect your metabolic rate?
-Genetic factors -Amount of exercise done -Diet -Gender
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Why does your metabolic rate go up when you exercise?
Because you need more energy
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What does the term 'malnourished' mean?
A diet that is badly out of balance
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What can obesity cause?
-Arthritis -Type 2 diabetes -High blood pressure -Heart disease -Can cause some types of cancer
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What is obesity?
20% (or more) over maximum recommended body mass
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What factors can lead to obesity?
-Eating too much -Hormonal problems -Bad diet -Lack of exercise
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What can malnutrition effect?
-Slow growth in children -Fatigue -Poor resistance to infection -Irregular periods in women
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What does exercise do?
-Increases the amount of energy used in the body -Decreases the amount of energy stored as fat -Builds muscle -Boosts metabolic rate
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What is cholesterol?
A fatty substance that's essential for good health and found in every cell in the body
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What are pathogens?
Microorganisms that enter the body and cause infectious diseases (diseases that can easily spread)
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What are the two types of pathogen?
Bacteria and viruses
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What is bacteria?
Very small cells (1/100th size of your body cell) that reproduce rapidly in your body. Can make you feel ill by damaging your cells and producing toxins
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What are viruses?
Not cells. 1/100th size of bacterium. Replicate themselves by invading your cells & using the cells' machinery to produce many copies of themselves. They will then burst, releasing the new viruses
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How features of your body stop diseases coming in?
-Skin -Hairs -Mucus in your respiratory tract
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How does your body stop microorganisms coming into the body through cuts?
Small fragments of cells (platelets) help blood clot quickly to seal wounds
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How do white blood cells fight disease?
1) Engulf foreign cells & digest them 2) Produce antibodies rapidly to lock onto the cells and kill them 3) Produce antitoxins
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What is vaccination?
When you are injected with small amounts of dead/inactive microorganisms that carry antigens which causes the body to produce antibodies to attack them
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What does MMR stand for?
Measles, mumps and rubella
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Why do booster injections for vaccination occur?
Because some vaccinations wear off over time
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What are the advantages of vaccination?
-Control lots of infectious diseases -Big outbreaks of disease (epidemics) can be prevented if large percentage of population is vaccinated
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What are the disadvantages of vaccination?
-Doesn't always work -Some people can have bad reactions to them but this is rare
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What do antibiotics do?
They kill/prevent the growth of the bacteria without killing your own body cells. They don't kill viruses.
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How can bacteria be resistant to an antibiotic?
They can mutate so when you treat the infection, only the non-resistant strains of bacteria will be killed
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Why is 25 degrees used in a school lab when growing microorganisms?
Because a temperature higher than that can produce harmful bacteria
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What did Ignaz Semmelweis believe?
He believed that doctors were spreading a disease on their unwashed hands then touched women who were about to give birth which caused them to die
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What did Semmelweis make the doctors do to prevent the disease that killed women after childbirth?
He made them wash their hands in an antiseptic solution. This cut the death rates
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Why were Semmelweis' ideas dropped?
Because no one knew the existence of bacteria and he couldn't the prove why his idea worked
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Why can bacteria that becomes resistant be dangerous?
It could spread easily to a population that isn't immune to it and cause an epidemic
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What is a stimulus?
It's a change in your environment which you may need to react to. It can be light, sound, touch, pressure, chemical, pain, a change in position or temperature
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What are the five sense organs?
-Eyes -Ears -Nose -Tongue -Skin
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What are receptors?
Receptors are a group of cells which are sensitive to a stimulus. They change stimulus energy into electrical impulses
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What receptors do the eyes have?
Light receptors - sensitive to light
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What receptors do the ears have?
Sound receptors - sensitive to sound
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What receptors does the nose have?
Smell receptors - sensitive to chemical stimuli
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What receptors does the tongue have?
Taste receptors - sensitive to bitter, salt, sweet and sour chemical stimuli
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What receptors does the skin have?
Sensitive to touch, pressure, pain and temperature change
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What are the sensory neurones?
The nerve cells that carry signals as electrical impulses from the receptors to the central nervous system
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What are the relay neurones?
The nerve cells that carry signals from sensory neurons to motor neurones
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What are the motor neurones?
The nerve cells that carry signals from the central nervous system to the effector (muscles or glands)
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What are the effectors?
Muscles or glands - muscles contract in response to a nervous impulses whereas glands secrete hormones
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What is the central nervous system?
Where all the information from the sense organs is sent and where reflexes and actions are coordinated. Consists of the brain and the spinal cord only
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What are neurones?
They are nerve cells that transmit the information as electrical impulses to and from the CNS
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What is a synapse?
The connection between two neurones
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How are nerve signals transferred?
By chemicals that diffuse across the gap
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What are reflexes?
They are automatic responses to certain stimuli and help reduce the chances of being injured
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What is a reflex arc?
The passage of information in a reflex
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What is the order of the reflex arc?
Stimulus - Receptor - Sensory neurone - Relay neurone - Motor neurone - Effector - Response
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What are hormones?
They are chemical messengers which travel in the blood to activate target cells. They are produced and secreted in various glands
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What hormones does the pituitary gland produce?
FSH and LH
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What hormone does the ovaries produce?
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What is the difference between nerves and hormones?
Nerves: -Fast action -Act for short time -Act on precise area Hormones: -Slower action -Act for long time -Act in more general way
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What happens in day 1 of the menstrual cycle?
The uterus lining breaks down for about 4 days
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What happens from day 4 to day 14 in the menstrual cycle?
The lining of the uterus builds up into a thick, spongy layer full of blood vessels, ready to receive a fertilised egg
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What happens at day 14 in the menstrual cycle?
An egg is released from the ovary
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What happens from day 14 to day 28 in the menstrual cycle?
The wall is maintained. If no fertilised egg has landed on the uterus wall by day 28, the spongy lining breaks down again and the cycle starts again
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What does the hormone FSH do?
-Produced in the pituitary gland -Causes egg to mature in one of the ovaries -Stimulates ovaries to produce oestrogen
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What does the hormone oestrogen do?
-Produced in the ovaries -Causes pituitary to produce LH -Inhibits further release of FSH
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What does the hormone LH do?
-Produced by the pituitary gland -Stimulates the release of egg at the middle of menstrual cycle
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How can oestrogen reduce fertility?
If it's taken everyday, it keeps the level of it high which causes it to inhibit the production of FSH. After a while, egg development and production stop permanently
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How can progesterone reduce fertility?
It stimulates the production of thick cervical mucus which stops the sperm getting through and reaching the egg
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What are the advantages of a contraceptive pill?
-Is over 99% effective at preventing pregnancy -Reduces risk of getting some types of cancer
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What are the disadvantages of a contraceptive pill?
-Isn't 100% effective -Can cause side effects e.g. headaches, nausea, irregular menstrual bleeding, fluid retention -Doesn't protect women from STDs
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How can the hormones FSH and LH increase fertility?
They can be injected into the women to stimulate egg release in the ovaries
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What is the advantage of using the hormones FSH and LH to increase fertility?
Helps a lot of women to get pregnant
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What are the disadvantages of using the hormones FSH and LH to increase fertility?
-Doesn't always work -Expensive -Can cause unexpected multiple pregnancies (twins/triplets etc)
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What is IVF (in-vitro fertilisation)?
When eggs are collected from the women's ovaries and are fertilised in a lab by using the man's sperm, They are then grown into embryos. Once the embryos are tiny balls of cells, one or two of them are transferred to the woman's womb.
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What is the advantage of IVF?
Can give an infertile couple a child
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What are the disadvantages of IVF?
-Some women have strong reaction to the hormones e.g vomiting, dehydration -Could be an increased risk of cancer -Multiple births that can be risky
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What is auxin?
A plant hormone that controls the growth in response to light (photosynthesis), gravity (gravitropism or geotropism) and moisture near the tips of shoots and roots
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Why might a plant stop growing if the tip of a shoot is removed?
Because no auxin is available
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How do shoots in a plant grow towards the light?
When shoot tip is exposed to light, more auxin accumulates on the side that's in the shade. This makes the cells elongate faster on the shaded side so the shoot bends towards the light
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How do shoots in a plant grow away from gravity?
When a shoot is growing sideways, gravity produces unequal distribution of auxin in the tip with more auxin on the lower side. This causes lower side to grow faster bending the shoot upwards
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How do roots of a plant grow towards gravity?
A root growing sideways will have more auxin on its lower side. But in a root, the extra auxin inhibits growth causing the cells on top to elongate faster and the root bends downwards
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How do roots of a plant grow towards moisture?
An uneven amount of moisture eitehr side of a root produces more auxin on the side with more moisture. This inhibits growth on that side causing the root to bend in that direction towards the moisture
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What is homeostasis?
When all the functions of your body try to maintain a constant internal environment
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What bodily levels need to be controlled?
-Ion content -Water content -Sugar content -Temperature
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How does the body remove ions if there is too much?
Some ions are lost in sweat or the kidney remove the excess from the blood and gotten rid of in the urine
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How is water lost from the body?
-Through skin as sweat -Via lungs in breath -Via kidneys as urine
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What happens to your sweat and urine on a cold day?
Because you're not exercising, you don't sweat as much so you'll produce more urine which will be pale
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What happens to your sweat and urine on a hot day/when you're exercising?
You'll sweat a lot and produce less urine which would be more concentrated. You'll lose more water through your breath when you exercise because you breathe faster
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What temperature do enzymes work best in your body?
37 degrees Celsius
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What does the hormone insulin do?
Helps maintain the right level of glucose in your blood
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What are the ethical problems with going against taking performance-enhancing drugs?
-It's unfair if people gain an advantage -Athletes may not know all the serious health risks of the drugs they take
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What are the ethical problems with allowing athletes to take performance-enhancing drugs?
-Athletes have the right to make their own decision -Different athletes have access to different coaches, training facilities, equipment etc
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What are statins?
Prescribed drugs that are used to lower the risk of heart and circulatory disease. They also lower blood cholesterol
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What is cannabis?
An illegal drug that sometimes causes mental health problems
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What is a placebo?
A substance that's like the drug tested but doesn't do anything
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What was thalidomide and why was it banned?
It was supposed to be a sleeping pill but it also relieved morning sickness. However it caused deformities for babies and some were born without arms or legs
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Why do people take drugs?
-Stress relief -Simple enjoyment -Relaxation -To get stoned -For inspiration -Background or personal life may have influenced them
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What are the effects of smoking?
-Causes disease of the heart, blood vessels and lungs -Causes cancer -Contains nicotine which makes it addictive
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What are the effects of alcohol?
-Affects the nervous system and slows down body reactions -Leads to impaired judgement, poor coordination and unconsciousness -Can be addictive
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Other cards in this set
What do fats do?
Keep you warm and release energy
What is protein for?
What does fibre do?
What do vitamins and mineral ions do?