cell structure questions

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  • Created by: sarah
  • Created on: 21-04-14 13:50
define magnification
the degree to witch the size of an image is bigger than the object
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Define Resolution
the degree witch it is easier to distinguish between two close objects
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what is the magnification of a light microscope?
1000-2000x
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what is the magnification of a SE microscope
50,000-500,000x
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what does SE microscope stand for
Scanning electron Microscope
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what is the magnification of a TE microscope
300,000-1,000,000x
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what does TE microscope stand for?
Transmission electron microscope
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what is the resolution of a light microscope
50-200nm
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what is the resolution of a SE microscope
0.4-20nm
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what is the resolution of a TE microscope
0.05-1.0nm
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why and how do you section specimen before viewing under microscope?
embed in wax, so it can be cut without damaging
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how do TE microscopes work?
a beam of electrons is generated. magnets are used to focus electrons, and they are projected at the specimin. the electrons pass through denser parts less easily, and so there is a contrast when projected onto an electro-micrograph
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how do SE microscopes work?
a beam of electrons is generated. magnets are used to focus electrons, and they are projected at the specimin. the electrons bounce off samples. the final immage is 3d, colour is added afterwoulds
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what are the disadvantages of using Electron microscopes?
secimins have to be dehydrated, and there for dead, have to be in a vacume (air particles deflect beams), very expensive, needs high skills to operate
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what does ultra-structure mean?
the detail inside the cell
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who and when discovered cells
1660's Robert Hooke
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what does the cell theory state?
all living things consist of cells. new cells are formed only by division of others. contains info wich acts as the instructions for growth (cannot be passed between cells)
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how do you calculate the magnification?
image size / actual size
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how many micro meters are in a meter?
1,000,000
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how many nano-meters are in a milometer?
1,000,000
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how many nanometers are in a cm?
10,000,000
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how many micro meters are in a millimer
1,000
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what organells are found in plant cells, but not animal?
Cell Walls, Vacuole, Chloroplast
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what are plant cell walls made of?
chloroplast
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what are the gaps in plant cell walls called?
Plasmodesmata
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explain the structue of a chloroplast
double membrane, thick fluid (stroma), stacks of inner membranes (grama), grama linked together by Lamelle
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what is a eukaryote cell?
one that contains a nucleus and membrane bound organels
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give an example of a prokaryotic cell
bacteria
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describe the structure of a prokaryote
smaller ribosomes, mesosomes (produce ATP), cell membrane + wall, cell capsual, flagella, pilus, Plasmid (small ring of DNA), Nucleoid (region of naked, circular DNA strand with no histone proteins)
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name 10 components of a Eukaryotic cell
golgi apparatus, Lysosome, mitochondria, centrioles, ribosomes, plasma membrane, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, rough endoplasmic reticulum, Nucleolus, Nuclear Envolope
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what is the function of golgi apparatus?
to recieve and modify proteins, and package them into vesicles to be transported
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what is the function of a Lysosome?
to digest invading cells
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what is the function of Mitochondria?
produce ATP
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what are Centrioles?
small tubes of protein fibers, which are used in cell division
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what is the function of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum?
help synthesize and process lipids
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what is the function of ribosomes?
sight of protein synthesis (amino acids are assembled to make protiens)
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what is the function of the rough endoplasmic reticulum?
covered in ribosomes, and so helps the synthesis and processing of proteins
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where are ribosomes made?
the Nucleolus
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what is the cytoskeleton?
a network of fibers (made of protein) which help to keep cell shape
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what are microtubrials used for?
to waft mucus, move chromosomes during miosis, move vesicals, microtubrial moters
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what is the difference between microtubrials and actin fibrials
actin fibrials are found in muscle cells and move against each other, move different organelles
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what is the structure of flagella or cillia?
9+2 arrangement, 2 microtubrials in the center and 9 on the outside
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what is the correct name for flagella?
Undulipoda
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define the term division of laybour
each type of organelle within a cell having a specific role
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