Biology Topics 1, 2,3

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T1- What are four of the characteristics if living things?
Movement- they can move towards water or light. Respiration- they release energy from their food. sensitivity- They can respond to stimuli. Growth- They can increase in size.
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T1- What are four of the characteristics if living things?
Reproduction- they can produce offspring. Excretion- they can remove waste products. Nutrition- require energy to grow. Homeostasis- The can control their internal conditions.
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T1- What is the level of organisation starting with the smallest strcuture first?
Organelles, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems.
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T1- What are the organelles found in animal and plant cells, and what are their functions?
Nucleus- Contains genetic material/DNA and controls proteins made in the cell. Cell membrane- Holds cell together and controls what goes in and out. Cytoplasm- where the chemical/metabolic reactions take place.
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T1- What are the organelles found in only plant cells, and what are their functions?
Vacuole- contains cell sap and is rigid so provides support. The cell wall is made of cellulose and is rigid so supports the cell. Chloroplasts are where photosynthesis happens in the cells.
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T1- Cells are S__________?
Specialised.
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T1- What are tissues?
A collection of (different) tissues working together for a function.
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T1- What are organs?
A collection of tissues working together to carry out a particular function.
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T1- What are the characteristics of plants and name examples.
MAIZE (CEREALS) AND PEAS/BEANS. They are multicellular and have chloroplasts so can photosynthesise. They have cell walls made of cellulose. They store carbohydrates as starch or sucrose.
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T1- What are the characteristics of animals and name examples.
HUMANS, HOUSEFLIES AND MOSQUITOES. They are multicellular and do not have chloroplasts so they cannot photosynthesise. They don't have cell walls, but have a nervous system/coordination. They can move and store carbohydrates as glycogen.
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T1- What are the characteristics of fungi and name examples.
MUCOR- MULTICELLULAR YEAST- SINGLE CELLED. They have a body (mycelium) made up of thread like structures (hypae which have many nuclei.) They cannot photosynthesise. Their cell walls are made of chitin. They store carbohydrates as glycogen.
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T1- Give a definition for saprotrophic nutrition
It is the extracellular secretion of digestive enzymes onto food material and absorption of the products.
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T1- Explain the process of saprotrophic nutrition
Mould spores land on food. Hypa grows out and branches to become a mycelium. Mycelium covers food. Hypae secrete enzymes which break down food into soluble sugars. Re-absorbed by mould. More spores produced.
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T2- What are characteristics of protoctists and name examples
CHOLRELLA- algae (plant like). AMOEBA- (animal like.) They are single celled and microscopic. Some have chloroplasts or some are more like animal cells.
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T2- What are characteristics of bacteria and name examples
PNEUMOCOCCUS- spherical in shape, is a human pathogen. LACTOBACILLUS BULGARICUS- yoghurt making. They are single celled and microscopic. No nucleus. circle/ring of chromosome/DNA. Some can photosynthesise. Most are parasitic.
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T2- What are characteristics of viruses and name examples
INFLUENZA VIRUS, TOBACCO MOSIAC VIRUS, HIV- causes aids. They are smaller than bacteria. They only reproduce inside a living cell (parasitic.) They are all pathogenic. They are a fragement of DNA surrounded by a protein coat (capsid.)
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T2- Define the term 'biological catalyst'
They are substances wwhich increase the speed of a reaction without being changed or used up in the reaction.
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T2- Why does the body need enzymes?
The body cannot raise temperatures to increase rates of reactions otherwise the body could be damaged, so enzymes are useful. Also they only speed up metabolic/useful reactions.
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T2- What are enzymes? (structure.)
They are proteins (amino acids.)
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T2- What is a substrate?
A substance that is changed in the reaction.
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T2- What is the 'active site?'
It is the part of the enzyme's surface where the substrate joins, it has to fit the substrate perfectly.
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T2- How can temperature affect the ability of the enzyme?
If the temperature is increased, at first there will be more frequent/stronger collisions increasing the rate of reaction. If too hot, the bonds in the enzyme break. The active site will lose its shape and they enzyme cannot catalyze the reaction.
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T2- Denaturing of enzymes is...
IRREVERSIBLE.
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T2- What are two methods to investigate the effect of temperature on enzymes?
How fast the product appears/ how fast the substrate disappears.
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T2- Explain an example of the product apparition experiment
hydrogen peroxide decomposing into water and oxygen. CATALASE is the catalyst. independent- changing the temperature of the water bath holding the solution. dependent- volume of oxygen produced in a set time.
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T2- Explain an example of the substrate disappearance experiment.
Starch solution with amylase in water bath. regularly sample into iodine solutions in well plates. If blue black, starch present, if brown/orange, amylase has broken down starch into maltose. independent- temp of water. dependent- time taken.
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T2- Along with temperature, what other conditions do enzymes need and why?
The optimum pH. If too high/low, the bonds of the enzyme will break and the active site will denature which is irreversible.
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T3- Define 'diffusion.'
It is the net movement of particles from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. Down the concentration gradient.
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T3- What types of molecule cannot pass through a cell membrane?
Larger molecules such as proteins and starch.
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T3- Define the term 'osmosis'
It is the net movement of water molecules across a partially/semi permeable membrane down the concentration gradient ( from high water potential to low water potential.)
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T3- Why does water move in this way?
It is trying to reach a state of equilibrium (isotonicity.)
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T3- What will cells in a hypertonic solution do?
They will 'shrink' or become flaccid as there is a higher concentration of solutes outside of the cell, and the water moves out of the cell.
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T3- What will cells in a hypotonic solution do?
They will be 'plump' or turgid, as there is a lower concentration of solutes outside of the cell, so the water moves into the cell.
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T3- What happens in turgid cells and why is this important?
The contents of the cell push against the cell walls in a plant cell, so the turgor pressure helps to support the plant.
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T3- What is the method of calorimetry?
1) dry food that burns easily, find out its mass. 2) Put onto a mounted needle. 3) Set up a boiling tube with a thermometer and 25cm^3 of water . 4) measure starting temp of water. 5) re-light food until it can no longer light. 6) Measure temp.
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T3- What is the formula to work out the energy in food?
Energy in J = 4.2 x temperature change of water x mass of water.
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T3- How would you work out energy per g?
Energy of food (J) / mass of food (g). Joules PER g, you just divide.
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T3- How can the accuracy of the experiment be improved?
Insulate the test tube by using an insulating material, or foil since heat energy is lost to the surroundings.
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Card 2

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T1- What are four of the characteristics if living things?

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Reproduction- they can produce offspring. Excretion- they can remove waste products. Nutrition- require energy to grow. Homeostasis- The can control their internal conditions.

Card 3

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T1- What is the level of organisation starting with the smallest strcuture first?

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Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

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T1- What are the organelles found in animal and plant cells, and what are their functions?

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Card 5

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T1- What are the organelles found in only plant cells, and what are their functions?

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