Biology Topics 14, 15, 16 and 17

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T14- What is the thorax?
It is the top part of the body, separated from the lower part by the diaphragm.
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T14- What are the lungs surrounded by, and what do they do?
Pleural membranes: They keep each lung airtight so that if one is punctured/damaged, the other one is still airtight.
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T14- What is the order of structures in the lungs?
Trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli.
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T14- What happens when you breathe in (to the diaphragm etc)
The intercostal muscle contract pulling the ribcage up and out which increase the thorax volume. The diaphragm contracts pulling it downwards. There is little pressure so air is drawn into the lungs.
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T14- What happens when you breathe out?
The intercostal muscles relax pulling the ribcage in and downwards which decreases the thorax volume. The diaphragm relaxes, pushing it upwards. There is an increase of pressure in the lungs, so air is pushed out of the lungs.
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T14- What are the dangers of smoking?
damages walls of alveoli and causes them to clump together, reducing surface area for gas exchange. leads to emphysema. Tobacco has carcinogens, can lead to cancer. CO reduces the amount of O2 the blood can carry. Increases heart rate,damages arterie
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T14- What are the dangers of tar?
It damages the cilia 'hairs' which clear bacteria trapped in mucus to the mouth. Chest infections more likely. Tar irritates bronchioles and bronchi so higher production of mucus which cannot be cleared by cilia.
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T14- How does oxygen diffuse into the blood. cells?
There is a higher concentration of O2 in the lungs than the blood so it diffuses down the concentration gradient. There is a higher concentration of O2 in the blood than body cells, so oxygen diffuses into the cells where there is a low concentration
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T14- How does carbon dioxide diffuse out of body cells and out of the blood?
higher concentration CO2 in body cells (product of respiration.) diffuses into the lower concentration of CO2 in the oxygenated blood.Due to the inhalation there is a low concentration of CO2 in the lungs than the blood, diffuses into lungs.
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T14- What are adaptations of alveoli?
high surface area and walls are permeable for gas diffusion. Their walls are one cell thick for a shoter diffusion distance and faster diffusion rates. Also there is a good blood supply so steep concentration gradient Moist lining for gas dissolving.
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T15- What is role of plasma?
It is a pale yellow liquid which transports all blood cells, platelets, urea from the liver to the kidney, carbon dioxide from cells to lungs, hormones, digested molecules from gut to cells and HEAT ENERGY.
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T15- What is the role of platelets?
They are small fragments of cells which help blood clotting. When a blood vessel is damaged, platelets clump over affected area and fibrin holds them together. this prevents blood loss and microbes entering,
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T15- What is the role of red blood cells?
they carry oxygen from the lungs to body cells for respiration. The haemoglobin reacts with oxygen to form oxyhaemoglobin, in cells the reverse happens to release oxygen.
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T15- What are the adaptations to transport oxygen?
red blood cells have a bioconcave shape which increases surface area for carrying oxygen. They have no nucleus which gives more space for carrying oxygen. Haemoglobin contains iron which keeps blood red.
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T15- what are the roles of phagocytes?
phagocytosis: they detect the foreign body and extend their cytoplasm to engulf the pathogen. Then they secret digestive enzymes onto the pathogen and they digest it.
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T15- what are the roles of lymphocytes?
Each pathogen has unique antigens on its surface. Lymphocytes proudce antibodies (soluble proteins) which pass through the plasma to stick to the proteins.
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T15- How can the production of antibodies help?
It can cause bacteria to clump together so they can be more easily engulfed by phagocytes. the bacteria cells can simply burst open. the antibodies'label' the pathogen so that it is easily recognised by a phagocyte.
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T15- How do vaccinations work?
An inactive pathogen is injected which triggers an immune response and specific antibodies are produced by lymphocytes to match the type of pathogen's antigens. Lymphocytes remain in the blood so that a faster immune response happens in future.
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T16- What are characteristics of arteries?
THEY CARRY BLOOD AWAY FROM THE HEART. they have a smaller lumen for higher pressures of arterial blood from ventricles. The muscle of the walls is thick and elastic to withstand higher pressures, and to allow recoil.
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T16- What are the characteristics of veins?
THEY CARRY BLOOD BACK TO THE HEART. They have a bigger lumen to help blow flow under lower pressures and valves prevent the back flow of blood.
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T16- What are the charcteristics of capillaries?
They carry blood close to cells in order to exchange molecules. They have permeable walls which are one cell thick to reduce diffusion distances in order to increase the rate of diffusion.
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T17/18- How does the heart pump?
Right atrium receives deox blood from body> right ventricle> pulmonary artery> lungs, oxygenated> pulmonary vein> left atrium> left ventricle > aorta >body
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T17/18- what does hepatic artery/vein mean?
To/from the liver
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Card 2

Front

T14- What are the lungs surrounded by, and what do they do?

Back

Pleural membranes: They keep each lung airtight so that if one is punctured/damaged, the other one is still airtight.

Card 3

Front

T14- What is the order of structures in the lungs?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

T14- What happens when you breathe in (to the diaphragm etc)

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

T14- What happens when you breathe out?

Back

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