Biology Topic 2: Movement of Substances

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  • Created by: Livy
  • Created on: 19-11-13 15:35
What is diffusion?
The movement of particles from an area of higher concentration to lower concentration (down a concentration gradient) across a partially-permable membrane
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Is diffusion an active or passive process?
Diffusion is a passive process and does not require energy
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What are three factors affecting diffusion?
The difference in concentrations, surface area:volume ratio and the temperature
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What will speed up diffusion?
Steep concentration gradient, large surface area:volume ratio and a high temperature
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Why can't larger organisms rely on diffusion alone to absorb oxygen?
As organisms get larger, the SA:VR decreases. The rate of diffusion therefore decreases. Larger organisms cannot rely on diffusion alone, as oxygen will not reach all the cells
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What is the diffusion of water called?
Osmosis
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What is water potential?
The number of water molecules free to move. Water particles aren't free to move if they are interacting with a solute dissolved in the soloution
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What is the difference between concentrate and dilute?
Concentrate means less water and dilute means more water
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What happens when a plant cell absorbs water?
The cell becomes TURGID. It swells and the cytoplasm is under pressure and pushes against the cell wall
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What happens when plant cells become flaccid?
The cell looses water and is not swollen. The plant may droop
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What does plasmolysed mean?
When the cell has lost lots of water. The cytoplasm shrinks and the membrane gets pulled away from the cell
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What are carbohydrates made of?
Oxygen, carbon and hydrogen
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What are lipids made of?
Oxygen, carbon and hydrogen
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What are proteins made of?
Hydrogen, carbon, oxygen and nitrogen. Sometimes sulpher
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What are the subunits of carbohydrates?
Glucose, in long chains, which can form starch, glycogen and cellulose
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What are the subunits of lipids?
One glycerol molecule and 3 fatty acids
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What are the subunits of protein?
Amino acids, which form long chains of protein
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What is the food test for starch?
Iodine soloution
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What colour does it go?
From orange to black, if starch is present
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What is the food test for glucose?
Benedict soloution
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What colour does it go?
From blue to red, if glucose is present
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What is the food test for protein?
Biuret soloution
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What colour does it go?
Blue to lilac, if protein is present
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What is an enzyme?
An enzyme is a protein, that is a biological catalyst
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What do enzymes do?
Break substances down, and put them together
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What are they affected by?
Temperature, as if it's too high or low or the PH is too high or low, the enzyme will become denatured, which is when the active site no longer fits the enzyme
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What enzymes break up carbohydrates and starch?
Carbohydrases , turning carbs into maltose
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What enzymes break up protein?
Protehases, turning protein into amino acids
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What enzymes break up lipids?
Lipases, turning lipids into glycerol and fatty acids
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What is the optimum temperature/pH?
The temp/pH at which the enzyme works the fastest
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Card 2

Front

Is diffusion an active or passive process?

Back

Diffusion is a passive process and does not require energy

Card 3

Front

What are three factors affecting diffusion?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What will speed up diffusion?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Why can't larger organisms rely on diffusion alone to absorb oxygen?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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