biology topic 1

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the 3 main roles of the kidneys
removal of urea, adjustment of ion levels of the blood and adjustment of water content of the blood
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how is urea produced
in the liver by the breakdown of excess amino acids.
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how does ultraflitration occur?
a high pressure builds up and squeezes out water, urea, ions and glucose.
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why are things like protein and reb blood cells not reabsorbed?
they are too big so they stay in the blood
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how is glucose reabsorbed?
it is selectively reabsorbed by active transport against the concentration gradient.
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what is the process of maintaining the right water content in the body?
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what happens to urea and excess water after ultrafiltration
it carrys on through the nephron into the ureter, then bladder as urine. then finally through the urethra.
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if there is too much water what happens ADH levels
it decreases
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name the two types of kdiney treatments
Dialysis and kidney transplants
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what is the term negative feedback meant by?
where changes in the environment trigger a response that counteracts the changers.
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what is the two main functions of the egg
to carry female DNA and to nourish the developing embryo
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what is the main functions of the sperm
to transport the male DNA
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what happens in stage one of the menstrual cycle?
bleeding occurs. the uterus lining breaks down and is released ( menstruation)
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what happens in stage 2 of the MC
lining of uterus lining builds up again. day 4 to 14, into a thick spongey layer of blood vessles to recieve a fertilised egg.
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what happens in stage 3 of the MC
an eg is released (day 14, ovulation)
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what happens in stage 4 of the MC
lining is maintaines for another 14 days. if egg isnt fertilised the uterus begins to shes and break down , cycle starts again.
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what does FSH do
causes the follicle to stimulate and mature, stimulates oestrogen
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what does oestrogen do
allows uterus lining to thciken and grow. high level of LH stimulates
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what does LH do
allows the egg to be released. it then changes it shape into a corpus lutem. which secretes progresterone.
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what does progesterone do?
maintains lining of the uterus. prevents production of FSH and LH.
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what fertility treatments are there available
hormone injections, IVF and with donated eggs and surragote mothers
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perks of hormone ijections
increased chance of ovualtion so increased chance of having a baby
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perk of IVF
allows infertile couples to have babies.
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perks of donated eggs
allows women to have a baby ( cant produce eggs). can prevent genetic disorders from mother.
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perks of surragot mothers
allows couples to ahve babies if they cant become pregnant and no chance of risky birh from mother
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bad point of hormone injections
doesnt always work, expensive, can result in multiplem pregnacies
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bad points of IVF
some women can get abdominal pains, vomiting and deydration, increased risk of cancer in some cases. multiple births
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bad points of IVF with donated eggs
emotionally difficult knowing the baby would have a genetic differnet mother
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bad points of surragote mothers
surragte mother has the right to keep the child it is legally hers until couple adopt the baby back. surragote mother can decide to not give baby away.
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** chromosone is the sex chromosone for a____
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xy chromosone is the sex chromosone for a _____
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what is pasteurisation
heating something up at 70 degrees C then cooling it. kills off harmful germs shouldnt make you ill
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how does the immune system respond to a pathogen
special white blood cells called b-lymphocytes produce antibodies when they come across a foreign microorgansim. the antibodies link onto the antigens which make up the surface of the pathogen. it kills it.
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what happens after antibodies kill the pathogen.
the b-lymphocytes produce memory lymphocytes which remember that pathogen and similar pathogens so that if it comes again the person wont get the disease only symptoms.
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what is immunisation
it inbolved injecting dead or inactive microorganism into the body. there are still antigens on it so antibodies are produced to kill it off and memory lymphocytes are prodcued.
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pros of immunisation
prevent out breaks of epidemics. some diseases are wiped out e.g smallpox
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cons of immunisation
doesnt always work, can have a bad reaction to it e.g swelling. dont last forever
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what are monoclonal antibodies used for
pregnancy testing
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


how is urea produced


in the liver by the breakdown of excess amino acids.

Card 3


how does ultraflitration occur?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


why are things like protein and reb blood cells not reabsorbed?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


how is glucose reabsorbed?


Preview of the front of card 5
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