Biology: The Components of Life Key Words

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  • Created on: 29-05-15 10:59
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A region on the enzyme that binds to a protein or other substrate during a reaction
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Active Transport
Movement of molecules into the cell using energy from respiration. Allows a high concentration inside a cell.
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Base in DNA that pairs with Thymine (Uracil during protein synthesis)
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Adult stem cell
A stem cell found in differentiated tissue that can specialise into a few types of cell
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Aerobic respiration
Respiration that uses oxygen
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Alimentary Canal
Muscular tube that runs from mouth to **** which is a part of the digestion system
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Different variations of genes e.g eye colour
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Carbohydrase enzyme which breaks down starch to sugars.
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Amino Acids
small molecule that is the building block of proteins.
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Anaerobic respiration
Respiration that breaks down glucouse without oxygen
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Proteins that bind to micro-organisms that cause disease and destroy them.
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The major artery leading away from the heart
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Vessels that transport blood away from the heart.
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Asexual respiration
Formation of a new individual without fertilisation,using the process of mitosis to create identical offspring.
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The chemicals which link together the two strands of molecule in DNA (adenine, thymine,cytosine and guanine)
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Complementary Base Pair
Bases which always pair up the same way because of the complementary shape of the molecules.
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Base Triplet (or Codon)
Group of 3 bases which codes for a particular amino acid.
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Substances in the human diet from which the body makes Vitamin A
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Example of probiotic bacteria
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Alkaline substance made by the gall bladder which emulsifies fats
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Bile Duct
Tube that connects the gall bladder to the small intestine
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The variety of species present within a given area
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Ball shaped mass of chewed food
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Blood vessels
Tube that contains the blood as it flows around the body
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Tiny blood vessels w/ thin walls to allow diffusion of substances in and out of the blood.
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Enzymes which catalyse the breakdown of carbohydrates
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Cardiac Output
Volume of blood heart can pump in a min (CO=stroke volume x heart rate )
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Substance that speeds up the rate of a reaction w/o being used up
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Cell membrane
Thin layer (forms semi permeable barrier) around the cytoplasm of the cell. Controls movements in and out of the cell.
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Basic units of life in which many chemical reactions needed to sustain life take place
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Cell walls are made of tough cellulose which support the cell and allow it to keep its shape
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Cell Wall
Relatively rigid structure that surround plant/ bacterial cells- supports the cell and helps it keep its shape.
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Green substance in chloroplasts that absorbs energy from sunlight.
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Organelle in plant cells that contains chlorophyll and is where photosynthesis takes place.
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Fat made in the liver and carried around in blood. High levels associated with heart disease
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Chromosomal DNA
The DNA which makes up the chromosomes of a cell
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Thread like structures found in the nucleus of the cell which carry genetic info.
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Circulatory System
Organ system involving the heart and blood vessels which oxygenates blood
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Individual created by a form of asexual reproduction which is genetically identical to its parent
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Concentration Gradient
Where a solute is an gradually increasing concentration from refion to another
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Liquid gel which makes up a lot of the body of a cell and is where many chemical reactions take place
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Base which pairs up with guanine
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Daughter Cell
Cell produced from division of a parent cell
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To break down/ change shape e.g enzymes denature when they are in a unsuitable pH
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Without oxygen
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Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
makes up genes and chromosones- instructions for a cells growth and activity
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Specialise, develop into different kinds. ( Stem Cells)
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Process where a less specialised cell becomes more specialised for a particular function.
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The random movement and spreading of particles . With concentration gradient- overall diffusion of particles from high concentration to a region of a lower concentration.
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Breakdown of large food insoluble molecules into small soluble food molecules
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Digestive System
System of Organs which digests food around the body
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cell w/ two sets of chromosomes. Almost all cells apart from sperm and egg cells are this.
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places in which a certain organism can be found in an area.
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DNA replication
Chromosomes are copied before cell division occurs
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Double Helix
Spiral structure of DNA
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Area where organisms and physical features form a stable relationship
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Getting longer
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Balls of cells produced by cell division of the zygote- very early development of new individual
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Embryonic Stem Cell
cell from an early stage of division of an embryo that can produce almost any kind of differentiated cell
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Turns into a emulsion, mixture which particles of one liquid are suspended in another liquid
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Remove a nucleus from a cell
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An organism's surroundings
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Protein molecule which sppeds up the rate of a reaction
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Development of a new species over time through a process of natural selection
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Periods of time after exercise which a greater than usual amount of oxygen is needed by the body for various processes including removal of lactic acid.
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Undigested, waste material
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Chemicals that are used to store energy in organisms
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Fatty acid
Part of the structure of a fat or an oil
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When two gametes fuse
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Whip like protein bodies found on outside of bacteria cells which can be used for movement
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Preserved traces or remains of an organism which lived a very long time ago
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Fossil Record
Collection of fossils identified from different periods of time that can be interpreted to evidence of evolution.
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Functional Food
Foods that are eaten which claim to make you healthier.
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Gall bladder
organ that stores bile made by the liver and releases to the small intestine
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Sex cell produced in reproductive organs by meiosis.
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Gas Exchange
Process in the lungs which oxygen diffuses from the lungs into the blood and carbon dioxide diffuses from the blood to the lungs.
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Section of DNA which codes for a specific protein
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Genetic Code
Code produced by a sequence of bases in genetic material
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Genetic Engineering
Process of removing a gene from one organism and inserting it into the the DNA in a cell from another organism
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organism that has had a gene from another species introduced
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All of the genetic information of an organism
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Giant Molecular Covalent Substance
Substance containing millions of atoms all held together by covalent bonds.
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Golden Rice
Genetically engineered rice which produces beta-carotene in the rice grains turning them a golden yellow colour
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Simple sugar that is broken down in cells to release energy during respiration . It is also produced during photosynthesis.
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Part of the structure of fat or oil
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Increase in size, length and mass, as well as an increase in cell number.
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Base that pairs with cytosine
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Place where an organism lives
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Red iron-containing pigment found in red blood cells
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One set of Chromosomes- gametes.
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Chemical which kills plants
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Human Genome Project
Project to sequence all of the base pairs of the human genome involving scientists from many different scientists from different countries working together.
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In reproduction, placing an embryo in the uterus of a female animal to develop
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Lactic Acid
Waste product of anaerobic respiration in animal cells
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Example of probiotic bacteria
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Large intestine
Organ that absorbs water from the digested material
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Left atrium
One of the four chambers of the heart that receives blood from the pulmonary vein
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Left ventricle
One of the four chambers of the hear that receives blood from the left atrium and pumps it to the aorta
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Light Microscope
Instrument which magnifies specimens using light and lenses
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Limiting Factor
Single factor when in short supply can limit the rate of a process e.g photosynthesis
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Enzyme that digests fats into fatty acid and glycerol
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Organ that has a range of function including the secretion of bile
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Lock and key hypothesis
Describes the relationship of a substrate and the active site of an enzyme to help explain how enzymes work.
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Division of parent cell that produces genetically different haploid cells
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molecule formed during DNA transcription that carries the code from the chromosome to a ribsome
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Mitochondrion (plural of mitochondria)
Site of cellular respiration where glucose is broken down using oxygen to release energy which is needed for reactions in the cell
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Division of parent cell that produces two genetically identical diploid cells.
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Changes in the sequence of bases in DNA
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Contains DNA for making new cells and organisms and also controls reactions in cells
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Muscular tube between mouth and stomach
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Type of carbohydrate which is a common prebioitic
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Group of different tissues working together to do a particular function
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Tiny structures that carry out specific jobs, e.g nucleus and mitochondria
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Organ system
Group of organs working together to carry out a particular function in the body
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Compound formed when haemoglobin combines w/ oxygen.( to carry oxygen around the body)
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Organ that makes digestive enzymes and secretes them in to the first part of the small intestine.
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Parent Cell
Cell that divides to produce daughter cells
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Partially permeable membrane
Thin sheet of material that will allow certain small molecules to diffuse through but not larger ones.
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Peer review
When a scientist who has similar backgrounds and experience checks someone else's work
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Five fingered
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Value of variable below which a certain percentage of observations fall e.g 20th indicates that 20% of the values are the same or below this value.
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Waves of muscular contraction that move food along the alimentary canal.
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Living tissue that transports sugars around the plant
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Series of enzymes-catalysed reactions carried out in green parts of plants. CO2 and H20 combine to glucose and oxygen.
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Pitfall Trap
Trap used to capture small animals that move on the ground
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Plant stanol esters
Oily substances found in plants that appear to lower cholesterol levels in the blood
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Liquid component of blood that carries all the suspended cells and dissolved substances.
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Plasmid DNA
extra circles of DNA in bacterial cells
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Cell fragments that help blood clot
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Chain of amino acids that will form part of a protein
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Pond Net
Net used to collect aquatic organisms in water ecosystems.
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Simple device used to collect small invertebrates (breath in tube )
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Population size
No of individuals of a species in an area
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Substances that cannot be digested by human enzymes but act as food to bacteria in the gut
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Foods containing live bacteria that produce lactic acid in the gut and claim to improve health of digestive system
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Enzyme that digests proteins to amino acids
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Protein synthesis
Building up of a protein molecule by joining together amino acids
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Pulmonary artery
Arteries that carry deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs
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Pulmonary Vein
Veins that carry oxygenated blood from lungs to the left atrium
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A square frame of a known area such as 1m^2 placed on the ground to get a sample of the organisms living in the area
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Random Sampling
Method of sampling where the locations are selected randomly
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Red Blood Cells
Biconcave discs containing haemoglobin that give the blood its red colour and carry O2 around the body to the tissues
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Representative Sample
A sample that has approx the same characteristics as those of the whole study area v
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Series of reactions occuring in all living cells in which glucose is broken down to release energy
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Small structure in the cytoplasm of a cell where mRNA is translated to an amino acid chain
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Right atrium
Receives blood from the vena cava
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Right Ventricle
Receives blood from the right atrium and pumps into the pulmonary artery
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Root Hair Cells
Found near tips of roots w/ thin extensions. Water enters through osmosis . Long thin extension gives bigger surface area
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Lubricates food and makes it easier to swallow, also contains amylase which begins digestion of carbohydrate
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Looking at a smaller proportion of an area/population
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Thin membrane that separates the two sides of the heart
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Sexual reproduction
Formation of a new individual from the fertalisation of a female g by a male gamete. Genetically diff from parents
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Small intestine
Organ where digestion is completed and nutrients are absorbed
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Carbohydrate made by joining together thousands of glucose molecules
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Stem Cell
Unspecialised cell that can divide to produce more stem cells or different types of specialised cells
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Organ that makes acid and some enzymes
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Stomata (sing. Stoma)
Tiny pore in the lower surface of a lead which when open, allows gases to diffuse into and out of the leaf.
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Stroke Volume
Volume of blood the heart can pump out with each beat
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Substance that is changed by an enzyme in a chemical reaction
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Groups of compounds formed from carbon, oxygen and hydrogen
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surface area to volume ratio
Total amount of surface area of an object divide by its volume.
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Surrogate mother
A female who is not related to the embryo implanted in her uterus
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Sweep net
Net used to collect insects from long grass or canopy of a tree
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Systematic Sampling
A method of sampling where the samples are selected from the population at regular intervals.
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Base that pairs Adenine
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Group of specialised cells that carry out the same function
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Strand of mRNA is produced by complementary pairing of bases with one strand of DNA in the nucleas
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small RNA molecule that transfers the correct amino acid to the ribosome during translation so the protein it codes for can be synthesised
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Transferring the code in mRNA sequence into a sequence of amino acids on a ribosome
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Evaporation of water vapour from the surface of a plant
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Base only found in RNA and which replaces thymine
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The Womb
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Membrane bound space in cytoplasm filled w/ cell sap (store of water and nutrients). Keeps plant cell rigid.
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Confirm a scientific theory is true
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Flap of tissues in the heart to stop the blood flowing backwards
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Vessels that transport blood back to the heart
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Vena Cava
Major vein leading to heart
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Fingerlike folds of the lining of the small intestine which greatly increases the surface area for the absorption/ diffusion of digested food products in the blood.
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Visking tubing
Synthetic membrane which is partially permeable- small molecules can pass through but not larger molecules
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White blood cells
Several different types of cells that defend against disease in the blood
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Tissue made of dead hollow cells that transports water and dissolved minerals from the roots to other parts of the plant
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Fertilised Egg
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Card 2


Movement of molecules into the cell using energy from respiration. Allows a high concentration inside a cell.


Active Transport

Card 3


Base in DNA that pairs with Thymine (Uracil during protein synthesis)


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Card 4


A stem cell found in differentiated tissue that can specialise into a few types of cell


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Card 5


Respiration that uses oxygen


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