Biology Test April 2014

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Net carbs
The total carb content of food minus the amount of fiber
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Low-density lipoproteins
Bad cholesterol
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Ketosis
When you feel less hungry, and therefore eat less
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GI
Glycemic index
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IGF1
Insulin-like growth hormone that plays a part in causing cancer, cardiovascular disease, dementia
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LCHF
Low carb, high fat
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Adjustment period
When you experience strong withdrawal symptoms
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VLCD
Very low calorie diet
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What are the parts of the digestive system?
Mouth, oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine/colon, rectum
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What are the 2 parts of the small intestine?
Duodenum, ileum
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Mastication
Chewing, mechanical digestion
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Peristalsis
Wave-like contraction of muscles that move food
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Bile salts
Secreted in the duodenum, made from cholesterol/carbohydrate
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Bilirubin
Formed from old blood cells, turns faeces brown
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Gristle
Nasal hair
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Pharynx
The throat
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Larynx
The voicebox
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Trachea
Wind pipe
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Ventilation
Exchange of stale air for fresh air
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Thorax
Ribcage
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Why is CO so dangerous?
It binds very strongly to haemoglobin, blocking it from gaseous exchange
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Vital capacity
The total amount of air that can be contained in the lungs
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Total volume of the lungs
4-6 litres
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How much air is replaced with each breath?
0.5 litres of air
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Building blocks
Amino acids, nucleotides, etc
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How is the circulatory system divided in birds & mammals?
Into the small & large circuit
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Pulmonary circulation
Right side of heart to lungs
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Body circulation
Left side of the heart to lungs
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A stroke-full of blood
The amount of blood forced pumped at every pulse
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What makes homeothermicity possible?
The effective transport of oxygenated blood keeps respiratory rates high enough for this
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Normal blood pressure
120 (pressure as heart beats), 80 (heart relaxes)
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Veins
Blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart
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Capillaries
Tiny blood vessels that go to each cell
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Venules
What capillaries join up to become, later veins
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Aterioles
What arteries divide into
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Pathogen
Disease-causing virus/organism
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Antibody
A protein that is produced by a B-cell, and fits a specific antigen
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Ratio of white blood cells to red blood cells
1:600
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2 types of active immunity
Innate, natural, and artificially acquired
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Low-density lipoproteins

Back

Bad cholesterol

Card 3

Front

Ketosis

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

GI

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

IGF1

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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