Biology SL chapter 4.4 (genetic engineering and biotechnology)

Outline use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to copy and amplify small quantities of DNA
PCR is used to produce large amounts of DNA. 1. Denaturation: DNA sample is heated and separated into 2 strands.2. Annealing: DNA primers attach to opposite ends of sequence. 3. Elongation: heat tolerant DNA polymerase copies strands. 1PCR cycle=2DNA
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OUtline gel electrophoresis
Samples of fragment DNA are placed in wells of agarose gel. Gel placed in buffering solution with current passing through. DNA being negatively charged moves to positive terminus.Smaller fragments move further,and are thus separated according to size
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Use of DNA electrophoresis
Used to identify individuals based on DNA profiles. DNA can be cut to form fragments which will generate unique profiles when compared using gel electrophoresis.
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Application of DNA profiling
DNA is collected(blood,saliva, semen) and amplified using PCR. Satellinte DNA is cut using enzymes to generate fragments. Individuals have unique frag lengths, which are then separated by gel electrophoresis. DNA profile can then be analysed.
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Outline outcomes of sequencing the complete human genome. pt 1
human genome project established sequence of 3 billion base pairs in human genome. outcomes: Mapping: we know number, location and basic sequence of human genome. Screening: enabled production of gene probes to detect carriers of genetic disease.
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Outline outcomes of sequencing the complete human genome. pt 2
Medicine: with the discovery of new proteins and their functions, we can develop improved treatments. Ancestry: gives us improved insight into origins, evolution and migratory patterns of humans
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Why can genes be transferred between species?
The amino acid sequence of polypeptides are the same for every living organism, meaning the genetic code is universal. Therefore genetic information can be transferred from one organism to another.
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Basic techniques for gene transfer between species
1-Dna extraction 2- digestion and ligation 3- transfection and expression.
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DNA extraction
1. a plasmid is removed from bacterial cell. 2. a gene of interest is removed from an organism's genome using a restriction endonuclease which cuts at specific DNA sequence. gene and plasmid amplified with PCR
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Digestion and ligation
Plasmid is cut with restriction enzyme that was used to excise gene of interest.Cutting with enzymes may generate "sticky ends"that allow 2DNA constructs to fit together.Gene and plasmid are spliced together by DNAligase,creating recombinant plasmid
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Transfection and expression
recombinant plasmid is insert into desired host cells. The transgenic cell will hopefully produce desired train encoded by the gene of interest(expression). Product may need to be isolated from hos and purified to generate sufficient yield.
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Genetic enginering of crops
1. Extend shelf life of produce. Genes for ripening are switched off and natural process of softening is delayed. 2. protection from insects: crops can become toxic to certain insects to stop them from eating the crop
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Genetic engineering of animals
1. Enhance production: sheep produce more wool when engineered with gene for enzyme responsible for producing main amino acid in protein of wool.2. to produce desired products
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Benefits of genetic modification
Allows introduction of characteristic not possible to get through selective breeding. Results in increased productivity of food production. Less use of chemical pesticides. Possible for crop/animal to adapt to new regions
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Potential harmful effects of genetic modification
Can have unknown harmful effects (allergic reactions). New species may cause competition with native species. Cross pollination/breeding may cause uncontrolled growth of alien species. Reduces genetic variation.
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Define clone
A clone is a group of genetically identical organisms or a group of cells derived from a single parent cell.
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Outline technique for cloning using differentiated animal cells pt1
A female animal is treated with hormones (e.g. FSH) to stimulate egg development. Nucleus from egg is removed, removing genetic info from egg. Egg is fused with nucleus from another sheep. Electric shocks stimulate egg to divide.
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Outline technique for cloning using differentiated animal cells pt2
Egg is then implanted into uterus of a surrogate. The developing embryo will have same genetic material as the sheep that contributed the nucleus, and thus be a clone.
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Arguments for cloning
May be used to cure serious diseases or disabilities (replacing bad cells with good ones). Stem cells can be taken from embryos that stopped developing and would've died anyway(abortions). Embryos can feel no pain when cells are taken.
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Arguments against cloning
Involves creation and destruction of human embryos. Embryonic stem cells are capable of developing and causing tumours. There is an excess of embryos, which are killed.
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Card 2

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OUtline gel electrophoresis

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Samples of fragment DNA are placed in wells of agarose gel. Gel placed in buffering solution with current passing through. DNA being negatively charged moves to positive terminus.Smaller fragments move further,and are thus separated according to size

Card 3

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Use of DNA electrophoresis

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Card 4

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Application of DNA profiling

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Card 5

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Outline outcomes of sequencing the complete human genome. pt 1

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