Biology SL chapter 3.5 (Transcription and translation)

Compare structure of DNA and RNA (4)
DNA has sugar deoxyribose, RNA has sugar ribose. DNA has base thymine, RNA has base uracil. DNA is double stranded, RNA is single. DNA forms double helix, RNA does not
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Three types of RNA
Messenger RNA (mRNA): transcript copy of gene used to encode polypeptide. Transfer RNA (tRNA) clover leaf shaped sequence that carries amino acid. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) primary component of ribosomes.
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Outline DNA transcription
Is when RNA is made from DNA template. RNA polymerase splits DNA strands and a complementary RNA strand is made. RNA polymerase detaches. DNA transcribed to RNA is called a gene. This occurs in nucleus (site of DNA). mRNA moves to cytoplasm.
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Describe genetic code in terms of codons comprised from triplets of bases
Genetic code is the set of rules by which mRNA sequences are converted into proteins. Codons are a triplet of bases that encode an amino acid. Order of codons determines sequence of AA in protein.
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Explain process of translation
Ribosomes bind to mRNA in cytoplasm of cell. tRNA anticodon molecules allign opopsite appropriate codon on mRNA.each tRNA carries specific AA. Ribosomes catalyse formation of peptide bond, them move along mRNA molecule synthesising polypeptide chain.
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Relationship between a gene and a polypeptide (PP)
Gene is sequence of DNA which encodes PP sequence. Gene is converted to polypeptide through transcription and translation. Translation uses tRNA and ribosomse to join AAs into a PP chain according to mRNA sequence.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Three types of RNA

Back

Messenger RNA (mRNA): transcript copy of gene used to encode polypeptide. Transfer RNA (tRNA) clover leaf shaped sequence that carries amino acid. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) primary component of ribosomes.

Card 3

Front

Outline DNA transcription

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Describe genetic code in terms of codons comprised from triplets of bases

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Explain process of translation

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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