Biology SL Chapter 3.2 (Carbohydrates, Lipids and Proteins)

Distinguish between organic and inorganic compounds
organic compounds are compounds containing carbon that are found in living things Exceptions: Hydrogen carbonates, Carbonates and oxides of carbon. Inorganic compounds are all other compounds
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List three of each: Monosaccharides, Disaccharides and polysaccharides
Mono: Gluoce, galactose, fructose (GGF), Di: lactose, maltose, sucrose (LMS), Poly: Cellulose, glycogen, starch (CGS)
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State function of glucose, lactose and glycogen in animals
Glucose: Source of energy which can be broken down to for ATP. Lactose: Sugar found in milk of mammals, provides energy for infants. Glycogen: Used by animals for short term energy storage in liver
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State function of fructose, sucrose and cellulose in plants
Fructose: Found in honey, is very sweet and good source of energy. Sucrose: Used primarily as a transportable energy form. Cellulose: Used by plant cells as strengthening component of cell wall
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Outline condensation
Condensation (dehydration) occurs when molecules are covalently bonded and water is formed as a byproduct. The bond formed is called a glycosidic linkage. (OH groups are linked with H2O waste product)
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Outline hydrolysis
Opposite of condensation, it requires a watermolecule to break a covalent bond between to subunits.
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Role of condensation between fatty acids, glycerol and tryglycerides.
Condensation occurs between 3 hydroxyl groups of glycerol and carboxyl group of 3 fatty acids. Reaction forms a triglyceride and 3 molecules of H2O. Bond between glycerol and fatty acids is ester linkage.
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Word reaction of condensation
Glycerol (H5C3(OH)3) + 3 fatty acids HOC=O becomse a triglyceride when the OH and HO groups of the two molecules bond and create water as a waste product. 1 fatty acid can be replaced by phosphate group to create a phospholipid
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Functions of lipids (SHIPS)
Structure: Phospholipids are main component of cell membranes. Hormonal Signalling: Steroids are involved in hormonal signalling. Insulation: Fats serve as heat insulators. Protection:Triglycerides serve as tissue around key organs. Storage of energy
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Compare carbohydrates and lipids in energy storage (similarities)
Complex carbs and lipids both contain a lot of chemical energy and can be used for energy storage. Both are insoluble in water (not easily transported). Both burn cleaner than proteins (no nitrogenous waste)
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Compare carbohydrates and lipids in energy storage (differences)
Lipids contain more energy per gram than carbs. Carbs are more easily digested. Mono and disaccharides are water soluble and easy to transport. Carbs= Short term energy, fats= long term.
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Structure of amino acids
Amino group (H2N) attached to a C on the left. H is on top of C. R group is below the C. Carboxylic acid group (C doubly covalent bond to O and single covalent bond to OH) on the right.
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Role of condensation in relationship between amino acids and polypeptides
Condensation occurs between amino group (NH2) of one amino acid and carboxylic group (COOH) of another. This reaction forms a dipeptide held together by a peptide bond. Multiple amino acids can be joined together to form a polypeptide chain.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

List three of each: Monosaccharides, Disaccharides and polysaccharides

Back

Mono: Gluoce, galactose, fructose (GGF), Di: lactose, maltose, sucrose (LMS), Poly: Cellulose, glycogen, starch (CGS)

Card 3

Front

State function of glucose, lactose and glycogen in animals

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

State function of fructose, sucrose and cellulose in plants

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Outline condensation

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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