Biology SL chapter 2.3 (Eukaryotic cells)

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Organelles of a prokaryotic cell
1. Cell membrane 2. Cytosol 3. Nucleus 4. Nucleolus 5. Ribosome 6.Mitochondria 7.Golgi apparatus 8. Lysosome 9. Peroxisome 10. Centroles 11. ER (Smooth ER /Rough ER)
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Cell membrane
Semi permeable barrier that controls the entry and exist of substances
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The fluid portion of the cytoplasm
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Contains hereditary material and thus controls cell activities and mitosis
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Site of production and assembly of ribosome components
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Complexes of RNA and protein which are responsible for polypeptide synthesis (Size - 80S vs prokaryotic 70S)
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Site of aerobic respiration, produces large amounts of ATP from organic compounds
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Golgi apparatus
An assembly of vesicles and folded membranes involved in the sorting, storing and modification of products
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Site of hydrolisis
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Catalyses breakdown of toxic substances
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Microtubule-organising centres involved in cell divison
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Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
A system of membranes involved in transport of materials between organelles. Smooth ER - synthesis of lipids, rough ER - Synthesis of proteins
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Similarities to prokaryotic cell
Both have cell membrane, both contain ribosomes, both have DNA and cytoplasm
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Differences to prokaryotic cell
In prokaryotes, DNA is naked and is found in the cytoplasm, not the nucleus. In prokaryotes, there are no membrane-bound organelles, DNA in prokaryotes is singular, reproduction is asexual (binary fission), eukaryotes have sexual (meiosis)
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Organelles of a plant cell
1. central vacuole 2. ER 3. Cytoplasm 4. Nucleus 5. Nucleolus 6. Ribosomes 7. Golgi apparatus 8. Starch granuoles 9. mitochondria 10.cell wall 11. Cholorplasts
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Difference between plant and animal cell (eukaryotic cell)
Plant cells have fixed shape chloroplast, cell wall, vacuole while animal cells do not. Animal cells have centrioles, cholesterol in membrane,
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Role of extracellular components (plants)
Cell wall proved support and maintains strength for the cell, prevents excessive water uptake, serves as barrier against infection
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Role of extracellular components (animals)
Extracellular matrix is made from glycoproteins which provides support for cells, it segregates tissues from one another, and regulates intercelluar communication.
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Semi permeable barrier that controls the entry and exist of substances

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