Biology Revision

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  • Created by: Erin
  • Created on: 21-02-15 11:24
What is a pathogen?
A disease-causing microorganism
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What is one main problem with bacteria?
They produce toxins
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What is one main problem with viruses?
They damage the host cell when they reproduce
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What is one function of white blood cells?
One of the functions of white blood cells is to ingest and destroy pathogens.
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What is one function of antibodies?
A function of antibodies is to lock on to antigens.
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How to antibiotics work?
They can stop bacteria from reproducing
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What does vaccination involve?
Injecting an inactive form of the pathogen to stimulate immunity
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It is important not to over use antibiotics why?
We should be careful not to over-use antibiotics because dangerous strains of resistant bacteria may develop by natural selection.
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What is the eye an example of?
A sense organ
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Which type of neurone transmits a signal from a sense organ to the central nervous system?
Sensory
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Which type of neurone transmits a signal from the central nervous system to an effector such as a muscle?
Motor
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What is a synapse?
A junction between two neurones
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Which part of the nervous system is not involved in producing reflex actions?
The brain is not involved in producing reflex actions
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What are hormones?
Chemicals secreted by glands
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How are hormones transported around the body?
In the bloodstream
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What part of the body secretes FSH?
The pituitary gland
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What part of the body secretes oestrogen?
The ovaries
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What is the function of the hormone LH?
LH causes a mature egg to be released
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Oral contraceptives likely to contain which hormones?
Oestrogen and progesterone
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Which hormones may be used in fertility treatment?
FSH and LH
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Shoots are positively phototropic but negatively gravitropic. True or False?
True
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Roots are negatively phototropic but positively gravitropic. True or False?
True
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Auxins (plant hormones) move through the plant in solution. True or False?
True
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A phototropism involves a response to what?
Light
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Where is auxin made in a plant?
In the growing tip of a shoot or root
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Which side of a shoot contains more auxin?
The shaded side
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When a root bends in the direction of the force of gravity what happens to the shoot?
the top side grows more than the bottom side
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What is the feature of a double blind trial?
Doctors and patients don't know if the drug is real
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What do stimulants do to the body?
Stimulants increase the heart rate
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Alcohol is an example of what?
a depressant
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Heroin and cocaine are both what?
highly addictive
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Why was thalidomide banned?
It caused birth defects
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The addictive substance in alcoholic drinks is called what?
Ethanol
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Which of the following short-term effect is caused by excessive alcohol intake?
Slurred speech
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What is meant by the word "population"?
All the members of a single species that live in a habitat
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Which of the following do plants not compete for?
Plants do not compete for food
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Why are polar bears white?
Polar bears are white so their prey cannot see them
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What is the most likely reason why animals in hot climates have larger ears than similar animals in cold climates?
Big ears lose heat quickly, while small ears lose heat slowly
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What is the most likely reason why wasps and bees have black and yellow stripes?
The most likely reason why wasps and bees have black and yellow stripes is to warn other animals that wasps and bees are dangerous
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Plants compete with each other for what?
Light, water and nutrients
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Organisms that are tolerant to high levels of salt, high temperatures or high pressures are called what?
extremophiles
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The mayfly larva needs clean water to survive. This means that it can be used as what?
an indicator species for water pollution
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How do lichens indicate levels of air pollution?
Lichens cannot grow at all in very polluted air.
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One advantage of using a temperature probe and datalogger, rather than a thermometer is what?
One advantage of using a temperature probe and datalogger, rather than a thermometer is it records the temperature automatically
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Decay happens faster when the conditions are what?
warm and moist
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Materials decay because they are what?
digested by microorganisms
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Which statement about inheritance is correct?
The nucleus of a cell contains chromosomes, which carry genes
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What type of factor is involved in determining body mass?
Both environmental factors and inherited factors
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What type of factor is involved in determining language?
Environmental factors only
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What type of factor is involved in determining eye colour?
Inherited factors only
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Where in one of a body's cells are chromosomes found?
The nucleus
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What is genetic information carried by?
DNA
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In humans, what are the male gametes called?
Sperm
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In the course of reproduction, when does fertilisation happen?
When a male and female gamete join
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Where can the donor nucleus come from in adult cell cloning?
A skin cell
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What sort of organisms can be genetically engineered?
Both plants and animals can be genetically engineered.
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According to Darwin's theory of evolution, how do new species evolve?
By natural selection
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Which individuals are most likely to survive to reproduce?
Those that are well suited to their environment
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What is likely to happen to an individual that is poorly suited to its environment?
It will not survive to reproduce
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What sort of variation is inherited?
Genetic variation is inherited
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Which is one of the reasons why Lamarck's theory of evolution was discredited?
It could not explain why simple organisms continue to exist on Earth
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What are the four blocks on a pyramid of biomass in order?
Primary producer, Primary consumers, Secondary consumers and Tertiary consumer.
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Card 2

Front

What is one main problem with bacteria?

Back

They produce toxins

Card 3

Front

What is one main problem with viruses?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is one function of white blood cells?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is one function of antibodies?

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Preview of the front of card 5
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